LecturesWk5A - Archaeology of South America: The Inca and...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style Archaeology of South America: The Inca and their predecessors
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Introduction
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Introduction At the time of Columbus’ departure from Spain, the largest empire in the world was Tawantinsuyu, the Inca empire. The empire was greater in size than any fifteenth- or twentieth- century European state, covering 380,000 square miles. The Inca controlled the most extensive political domain that has ever existed in the Southern Hemisphere. Cuzco, the capital, governed 80 provinces.
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Introduction The prehistory of western South America is generally similar to that of Mesoamerica. The earliest experiments with food production preceded the transition to sedentary village life. Although the first South American villages date to 3,500 B.C., earlier than those of Mesoamerica, the first sedentary communities were on the coast in both areas. Greater social differences and the first leadership positions developed soon thereafter.
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Introduction There were some important differences between prehispanic sequences in Mesoamerica and South America. Most of the major South American centers were shorter-lived than those of Mesoamerica. The South American region lacked a core region like the Basin of Mexico. Power shifted between the Pacific Coast and the rugged uplands. Animal domestication was more important in South America. Land transportation using pack animals was present in South America, while water transportation was more important in Mesoamerica. Writing developed in Mesoamerica, while the Inca only had a numerical system using knots.
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Introduction
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Introduction Eight/Nine South American sites are reviewed in this chapter. El Paraíso Chavín de Huántar Chankillo Moche Sipán Tiwanaku Chan Chan Cuzco/Machu Picchu
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Peru The west coast of Peru has interesting features. The waters off the coast are one of the world’s richest fishing areas. The shore is one of the world’s driest deserts, rarely receiving measurable quantities of rain. Streams carrying the snowmelt and rainfall from the Andes provide most of the surface water.
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El Paraíso The desert coast of Peru was first settled after 7,000 B.C. by mobile groups who exploited various environmental zones. Shellfish, along with deer, small mammals, and birds were hunted. Wild plants were collected in the coastal river valleys. After 5,000 B.C,. groups became more sedentary in the coastal region. Increased reliance on marine and plant products occurred. Cultivated squash and tubers introduced from the highlands were consumed. Permanent villages were established shortly after 4,000 B.C.
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El Paraíso El Paraíso was an early sedentary village on the coast of Peru. Between 2,500 and 2,000 B.C., larger settlements with
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This note was uploaded on 11/23/2010 for the course ANT 81350 taught by Professor Carrieveilleux during the Summer '10 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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LecturesWk5A - Archaeology of South America: The Inca and...

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