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9 Lecture - of its electrons to(d EX Cr 4s1 3d5 Chapter 12...

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PAULI EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE – no 2 e-s in an atom can have the same set of quantum numbers. What is the maximum # of e-s that fill the 3p orbital set? 6 electrons How many electrons fill a 3p orbital? 2 electrons Max electrons for n=4? 2n^2 = 2(4)^2 = 32 2 [1(s) + 3(p) + 5(d) + 7(f)] = 32 PARAMAGNETIC – one or more UNPAIRED electrons DIAMAGNETIC – all electrons are paired Hund’s Rule add electrons singularly before pairing begins for any degenerate level! EX. Use all upward arrows first, then go back and add a second downward electron to each. **In some cases, after filling the (s) orbital, the addition of a 1 st electron to the (d) orbital makes it sink below the Nrg level of (s). This leaves (s) with an incomplete orbital by transferring one
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Unformatted text preview: of its electrons to (d). EX. Cr: 4s1, 3d5 Chapter 12, Section 13 TRENDS TO KNOW: google “periodic trends” 1. IONIZATION ENERGIES Experiment attempts to transform atom M into a cation + one electron (M M + + e-) 2 nd ionization energy is ALWAYS GREATER THAN 1 st ionization energy. 2. ELECTRON AFFINITY Attempts to transform atom M into an anion + e-3. ATOMIC RADII Adding more protons and electrons to an atom DECREASES it’s atomic radii by pulling parts of the atom closer in to the nucleus (due to more effective attraction of charges) 4. IONIC RADII (CH. 13) Addition: X + e — X — Removal: X X + + e —...
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