Women, War, and Development

Women, War, and Development -...

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Unformatted text preview: ContemptofLaw,UniqueRoles,UrgentNeeds October4&5,McGillUniversity InsFtutefortheStudyofInternaFonalDevelopment CarolDevine WomenWarandDevelopment %ofCivilianCasual-esofWar WWII Vietnam Today UNCommissionontheStatusofWomen:"interna-onal humanitarianlaw,whichprohibitsaCacksoncivilians,is systema-callyignored,andhumanrightsareviolatedinarmed conflict,affec-ngthecivilianpopula-on,especiallywomen, children,theelderlyandthedisabled" %CivilianCasual-esofWar ICRC HistoryWomenandWar WWIIhighlightedwomen'sroles,inreserveorsupportunits(includingworkin muni-onsfactories)inGermanandBri-shforces.IntheSovietUnion,their directpar-cipa-oninthefigh-ngcons-tuted8%ofthetotalarmedforces. Womenhaveassumedagreaterroleandjointhearmedforcesmore frequently,voluntarilyandinvoluntarily,performingsupportandcombatant roles. Inlibera-onwarsorguerrillawarfarewomenplayedavitalroleinarmed forcesorsupportroles: Nicaragua:30percentoftheSandinistaarmyandheldposi-onsas commanders ElSalvador25%ofsoldiersofFarabundoMar-Na-onalLibera-onFront SierraLeone,2004 NickDanzinger/ICRC Famine in Southern Sudan 1998 Guerillato(possibly)PowerfulPresident MalalaiKakarLanaSlezi "Bigombe Talks" WomeninWar:Reali-es Vic-msandVulnerableandas: Civiliansaffected Survivorsofwarcrimes,rape,genocide Combatants,militaryormili-a,suicidebombers PeacemakersandPeacekeepers Protectorsoffamily,culture Wives,mothers,widows,employees,refugees/ IDPs,farmers,leaders,lawandpolicymakers, poli-cians,bystanders,ac-vistsetc Womeninwar VICTIM LOVER HOME MALEPEACKEEPER CHANGEAGENT FIGHTER BATTLEFIELD FOREIGNRAPIST NATURALINCLINATIONTOPEACE SOLDIER CONFLICTEMPOWERS MARRIAGEBREAKSBARRIERS CONFLICTDISEMPOWERS MARRIAGEMAKESTARGET Withtheincreasingpredominanceofciviliansamongcasual-es,a con-nuingthreadisthewaywomenexperiencesufferingindis-nct waysnotbecauseofintrinsicweakness,butbecauseoftheir posi-oninsociety(UnitedNa-ons1985) Menhigherdeathratesandhighernumberofdetainees/missing Womenhighernumberofdisplaced/refugees Rapeofwomenisontheincreaseinwarandconflictandmakes womenvulnerable--theirspecificsitua-onneedstobeaddressed Althoughwidespread,rape ofwomenhasbeenanunderreportedaspectofmilitaryconflict.Thewar intheformerYugoslaviafocusedaCen-onontheuseofrapeasa deliberatestrategytounderminecommunitybondsandweaken resistancetoaggression. JAMA1993 Democra-cRepublicofCongo: 40%ofwomenand23%ofmenreportedsufferingsexualassault JAMAAug13,2010 Requiresurgentintegratedmedicosociolegalresponse Aoerthewarisover Thelinkviolenceofwarandcon-nuingviolenceagainst womenandenormousimpactpostconflictonallsociety A&er1979menchanged.Nineoutoftenmenarebroken, nasty(`Khoch').DuringtheKhmerRougeperiodtheyhadno happinessatall.Sonowthattheyarefree,mendowhatever theywant. War,genderbasedviolenceandHIV Mul-plecohortstudieshavedemonstrated thatwomenwhoexperienceGBVhavehigher ratesofSTI/HIVdiagnosisthanwomenwho havenotexperiencedGBV "InAfricathereisnotauniversaldefiniKonof peace.ItisnottheclicheddefiniKonofnotbeing atwar.InSouthAfricatodaythereisincreasing domesKcviolence,anincreaseinchildabuse.So wecannotsaySouthAfricaisatpeace." ThandiModise,ANCWomen'sLeague "Fighterandmother" Ethiopia TheendofEthiopia's17yearcivilwarmeantthebeginningof lifeonthepavementformanywomenandchildren 40%ofstreetchildreninAddisarechildrenofexMengistu soldierswhoservedintheEthiopianarmyun-ltheEthiopian People'sRevolu-onaryDemocra-cFront(EPRDF)ousted Mengistuinearly1991 Genderinequitywarornowar: UNIFEM Womenareoutnumberedfourtooneinlegislatures worldwide .Over60percentofallunpaidfamilyworkersgloballyare women,andwomens-llearnonaverage17percentless thanmen. Aboutonethirdofwomensuffergenderbasedviolence duringtheirlives. Inpartsoftheworld,onein10womendiesfrompregnancy relatedcauseseventhoughthemeansforpreven-ng maternalmortalityarecosteffec-veandwellknown. Commonforwomen'svoiceseitherindividualororganised onallsidesofwaristobeabsentormarginalwhena seClementisreached Women'spar-cipa-oninconflict resolu-on,postconflict Womenunderrepresentedinpeacenego-a-onse.g.inpost peaceagreementpoli-calstructuresinBougainville(conflict withPapuaNewGuinea)oncons-tu-onalreform,weapons disposal,reconstruc-on InSolomonIslandsinternalconflictwomenbroughttogether ethnicgroupsfordialogue,riskedlivescarryingmessagesto opponentsterritory,promotedreconcilia-on--yetnot involvedinTownsvillePeaceConference2000 Noshortageoflawsorstatementsoncivilian protec-on,protec-onofwomen,par-cipa-on ofwomen Yetconsistentcontemptoflaws,reitera-ons ofgoals,colossalfailures horsdecombat1864 Protec-onofwomeninlaw1949 GCIV,Art.27WomenmustbeprotectedagainstanyaCackontheirhonour,in par-cularagainstrape,enforcedpros-tu-on,oranyotherformofindecent assault. API,Art.48Par-estoanarmedconflictmusttakeconstantcareintheconductof militaryopera-onstosparethecivilianpopula-on,civiliansandcivilianobjects. API,Art.76Womenmustbeprotectedagainstrape,forcedpros-tu-onandanyother formofindecentassault...par-estoaconflictmustendeavourtoavoidthe pronouncementofthedeathpenaltyonpregnantwomenormothershaving dependentinfantsforanoffencerelatedtothearmedconflict.Thedeathpenalty forsuchoffencesmustnotbeexecutedonsuchwomen. Otherprotec-onunderIHLrelevantto women Personalsafety Sexualviolence Health Freedomofmovement,displacement SourcesofIncome Preserva-onofFamilylinks Accesstoeduca-onandinforma-on Accommoda-on/food CulturalandReligiousprac-ces Legalissues,etc Interna-onalCriminalCourt TheInterna-onalCriminalCourtcameinto forceinJuly2002,iscurrentlyinves-ga-ng situa-onsinDRC,UgandaandDarfur,andis monitoringothers,includingtheCentral AfricanRepublic. "What we saw in Rwanda proved to us that our bandages, our sutures can never heal the deep wounds of Rwanda. What they need is justice. Thinking of the thousands of bodies and killings I had seen, I swore to myself that if there is a judicial system in the world, these people will pay for their crimes." (MSF's Dr. Rony Zachariah testifying before the Arusha Tribunal - Jan. 1996) ICC Since August 2010, 111 countries have accepted the jurisdiction of the ICC. Thus they agree to prosecute the crimes listed in the ICC Statute. If unwilling or unable to prosecute such crimes themselves, they agree to allow the ICC to do so. Crimes prosecuted: 1. Genocide: Acts of violence intended to destroy a national, ethnic, religious or racial group. 2. Crimes against humanity: Crimes committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack against a civilian population . 3. War crimes: Crimes committed in time of conflict against certain protected persons (e.g. civilians). ICCStatuteArts.8(2)(b)(xxi);(xxii); 8(2)(c)(ii);8(2)(e)(vi) RapeasWarCrimeRape,sexualslavery, enforcedpros-tu-on,forcedpregnancy, enforcedsteriliza-on,oranyotherformof sexualviolenceaswellasoutragesupon personaldignity...humilia-nganddegrading treatment,arewarcrimesininterna-onaland noninterna-onalarmedconflicts. Issueofprotec-onofvic-m/witnessesICTR ICTY Issueof$spentontribunalsvsrecovery 300milliondollarsspenton7trialsforRwanda,sameamountspent onRwandareconstruc-onandvic-msWhatisthebestwaytouse resources?EstherMujawayo,Genocide,rapesurvivor,`whatabout us?' Goldstone:ImportanceofTribunals:truthfulrecordingofcrimes (stopsdenial),moralaccoun-ngandvic-mvoicesheard UNSecurityCouncilResolu-on 1325October2000 KeyProvisions: Increasedpar-cipa-onandrepresenta-onofwomenatalllevelsofdecision making. ACen-ontospecificprotec-onneedsofwomenandgirlsinconflict. Genderperspec-veinpostconflictprocesses. Genderperspec-veinUNprogramming,repor-ngandinSCmissions. Genderperspec-ve&traininginUNpeacesupportopera-ons SecurityCouncilResolu-ons Endingsexualviolenceandimpunity--Resolu-on1820(2008) Resolu-on1889(2009)callingfortheestablishmentofglobal indicatorstomeasureprogressonitsimplementa-on Resolu-on1888(2009)strengtheningleadership,exper-seand otherins-tu-onalcapaci-eswithintheUnitedNa-ons/member statestoendtoconflictrelatedsexualviolence Tostrengthenwomen'sagencyaspeacemakersandpeacebuilders, includingpar-cipa-oninconflictpreven-onandpeaceprocesses,early recovery,governanceandinpeaceopera-ons. CaseExamples NorthernUganda:RebelWives Democra-cRepublicofCongo:TheMost ForgoCen NorthernUganda NorthernUgandawasravagedbyoneofAfrica'slongest civilwarsun-l2006.Forover20years,morethan65,000 children,someasyoungas5yearsold,werekidnapped byUganda'san-governmentrebelgroup,theLord's ResistanceArmy(LRA),forcedtoserveaschildsoldiers andsexslaves.UnderthecommandofLRAleaderJoseph Kony,childrenhavebeenterrorizedintocommiyng atroci-es. Democra-cRepublicofCongoDRC Africa's"WorldWar",5yearwar,300,000dead EasternDRC`RapeCapitaloftheworld',terrorizedpopula-on "TheUNpeacekeepingmissioninDRChas20,000militaryandcivilian members.Thesenumberspointtothevastresourcesateverylevel.All theseresourceshavefailed-meandagaintodotheirjob--tointervene onbehalfofthewomenoftheCongo."(AIDSFreeWorld) StatementaTerStatement.ResoluFonaTerResoluFon, butfailure DRCRapeEpidemic InJulyAugust2010,RwandanandCongoleserebelsgangraped over500women,men,babiesinLuvungi,DRC,10milesfromaUN peacekeepingcamp.ItisintheareaHillaryClintonvisitedlastyear, whereshepromised$17mtohelpstopsexualviolenceinCongo (NewYorkTimes09/08/10) HarvardHumanitarianIni-a-veDRCstudy:Themajorityofrape vic-mssurveyedweregangrapedbyarmedmen,therewasa17 foldincreaseinrapesperpetratedbyciviliansbetween20042008. Therapes,tortures,bea-ngs,andmaimingbyarmedsoldiershave createdacultureofrapewithinaformerlypeacefulsociety Whathope? Thatlawsaredeterrents Respectforruleoflaw Thatgovernmentsandinterna-onalbodies provideprotec-on,prosecute,endimpunity Thatpeoplewillseekpeaceandseepowerof nonviolenceandrespectforall Inthemean-me... Prof.FrdricMgret,McGill Therescueparadigm Thevic-masresister Interven-onvs.resistance Intervention State centred International community Top down Delayed Paternalistic Centralized Victim as object Institutional Resistance People centred Individuals Bottom up Immediate Empowering Decentralized Victim as subject Spontaneous ReconceptualizingintervenFon(Mgret) Interna-onalintervenKonindefenseof popula-onsindangerv.internaFonal assistancetopopulaFonsindanger Responsibilitytoprotect(others)v.rightto protect(oneself) Savingpeoplev.helpingpeopletosave themselves Solvingtheen-recrisisv.savingsomewhile onewesFllcan Networksofpeoplelivingwith(dying from)AIDS GovernmentResponsibility CivildisobedienceSouthAfrica,2000 1in4womendyingofAIDSinKhayelitsha,800 peopledyingaday DemandingtheS.Africangovernmenttreatpeople livingwithAIDS:TreatmentAc-onCampaign, unions,peoplelivingwithAIDS,families,students, doctors Figh-ngstateAIDSdenialism,local/globaloutrage Figh-ngforaffordabledrugsforAIDS/TB,PMTCT, PEPforsexualviolence WomenofLiberiaMassAc-on "Marketwomen"outsideLiberian peacetalksinGhana,2002 "Wearetheirconscience,siyngouthere.Wearecallingto theirconsciencetodotherightthing.Andtherightthingnow istogivetheLiberianwomenandtheirchildrenthepeace thattheysodesperatelyneed." Taylortoenterpeacetalks,ending14yearconflict LeymahGboweewhohelpedextractpromisefromCharles Humanitarianresponse, development Immediatesupport Medicalexam(canbeusedtoseekjus-cetoo) PEP--within72hours Reproduc-vehealth,STIs,pregnancytest Psychosocial Reconstruc-ve Jus-ce Research,Advocacy,Support WarriorstoArmwithMoneyand Empowerment:Grandmothers Fundthegrassroots: AidandAIDSinwarandpeace-me Supportadvocacyanddemandforaccessto medicine,food,land,pensions,reproduc-verights Homebasedcaregivers,femaleheadedhouseholds-- fund&support Buildcapacityoflocalorganiza-onsmakinga difference,leadingthestruggle,leveragetheir capacityandsuccesstoexpandservices Economicempowermenttowomen,skillbuilding, microfinance,savings/loansclubs Crowdsourcecrisisinfoviamobile Technologyalliancesandhumanitarianand humanrightsresponsefromfrontline Ushahidi FrontlineSMS HealthMap MDGSummit:22countrieslagging behindgenderequity Worldleadersreviewedprogressongoalsagreedin2000toalleviate worldpoverty,genderinequityandillhealthby2015.Governments, businessescommiCed$40bn,emphasisonmaternalandchildhealth. Aglobalstrategyforwomen'sandchildren'shealthreducingmaternal andchilddeaths,empoweringwomenandachievingequality,was announcedbyUNSecretaryGeneralBanKiMoon. AIDSremainstheleadingcauseofdeathforwomenofchildbearing ageandposesanimpedimentinreducingmaternalandchildmortality, par-cularlyinsubSaharanAfrica.TheInterna-onalAIDSSociety(IAS) callsongovernmentsanddonorstoacceptthatsuccessinimproving thehealthofpregnantwomenandchildrenunderfiveis interdependentwiththebaCleagainstHIV. Whatnext:womenand development Meaningfulpar-cipa-onofwomeninconflict resolu-on,peacemaking,postconflictrebuilding Landreform Lawreform Welfarepolicies,programmingforwomenbywomen Socialrela-onsbetweenmen&women Environmentalthreatsandplanning Responsetoneedsandjus-cenow SonkeGenderJus-ceNetwork, "MenEngage" July2,2010CreatedbytheGeneralAssembly,anewUNagencyto takeonwomen'sissues.Withthishistoricdevelopment,Member StatesrecognizedthefailureoftheUNtofulfillitscommitmentsto women'srightsanddevelopment [UNWomenis]"ahugeopportunitytosignificantlyaccelerateall theeffortsthattheUNsystemhasmadeinordertoachievebeCer condi-onsforwomen." MichelleBachelet,headofUNWomen AfewResources Development,WomenandWarOxfamUK2004Developmentin Prac-cereader hCp://www.developmen-nprac-ce.org/book/developmentwomen andwarfeministperspec-ves Afghangirlstalkpeace&skateboarding hCp://www.skateistan.org/student_blog/girlstalkskateboarding boyslearntucsonslang Interna-onalCommiCeeoftheRedCross:WomenandWarTalking Points:TheImpactofConflictonWomen hCp://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing15/interac-ve_panel_V/ ICRC%20Women%20and%20War%20Speaking%20Points%20CSW %20NYc.pdf ...
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