2002 Lb Rowe - C ode 22-02W page 1 Questions 1 to 25:...

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Unformatted text preview: C ode 22-02W page 1 Questions 1 to 25: Laboratory Questions 1. Which statement about the scientific method is CORRECT? a. The correct sequence of steps is controlled observation, hypothesis, experiment or preliminary observation, and theory. b. In a good experiment data are collected for the purpose of proving the hypothesis. c. An experiment that is designed properly is performed once and includes one replicate. d. The method is linear and ends with establishing a theory. e. A well designed experiment will attempt to have no confounded effects. 2. In which of the following is the appearance of the larval stage profoundly different from that of the adult (that is, the larval stage is not a miniature version of the adult)? i. ii. iii. iv. v. a. b. c. d. e. 3. Aphids Grasshoppers Beetles Cockroaches Walkingsticks i only i and ii ii, iii, and v iii only iv and v Which statement best defines phenotypic plasticity? a. Several different genotypes produce several different phenotypes, depending on the environment the phenotype is growing in. b. Several genotypes produce a single phenotype, depending on the environment the genotypes are growing in. c. A single genotype is produced from a single phenotype, depending on where the phenotype is growing. d. A single phenotype can produce several different genotypes, depending on the environment the phenotype is growing in. e. Several different phenotypes are produced from a single genotype, depending on where the genotype is growing. 4. Genetic equilibrium is most likely to occur in populations when: a. b. c. d. e. the number of harmful mutations equals the number of beneficial mutations. migration occurs between populations. natural selection is acting on the population. there are fewer than 25 individuals in the population. individuals with a given trait mate only with individuals who possess the same trait. C ode 22-02W page 2 5. Which of the following is the best null hypothesis for the metal tolerance experiment that you conducted in class? a. The tillers from Sudbury, Cobalt and Manitoulin Island grow best in the control solution and poorest in the metal solutions. b. Root growth of tillers in metal solutions does not differ among Deschampsia populations. c. There is a difference between root growth in control solution and root growth in metal solutions for each Deschampsia population. d. There is no statistically significant difference in tolerance index among populations of Deschampsia. e. There is no statistically significant difference in mean root length of Deschampsia populations grown in metal solutions. 6. Which statement is FALSE? a. b. c. d. Flapping flight in birds conserves energy for birds that migrate over large distances. Many Ontario songbirds are directly affected by deforestation in the tropics. Vampire bats exhibit cooperative behaviour by sharing their blood meal with other vampire bats. The mammals of Canada and the U.S. are more closely related to the mammals of Europe than they are to the mammals of South America. e. When dinosaurs appeared 250 million years ago the dominant plants included ferns and cycads. 7. The data below were obtained from a BIO150 lab class. What is the frequency of the A allele? Sum of entire population (class) F5 offspring: AA: 8 a. b. c. d. e. 8. Aa: 13 aa: 4 21% 29% 32% 42% 58% Which of the following is least likely to be an adaptation to avoid being detected by predators? a. b. c. d. e. Wing colouration and pattern in butterflies that resemble flowers on which they feed. Shape of body in walkingsticks. Dark brown body colour in cockroaches. Curled “tail” in female leaf insects. Praying mantids moving very slowly over vegetation. C ode 22-02W 9. page 3 Below is a protein electrophoresis banding pattern for the MDH-2 (malate dehydrogenase) locus for 10 zebra mussels. The origin is indicated by the double line. What is the frequency of the slow allele? a. b. c. d. e. 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 10. Which of the following describes a taxis orientation behaviour? a. Bees respond to chemicals by flying in random directions. b. As humidity of the environment increases, the amount of time an animal remains at rest also increases. c. Fruit flies in a vial congregate near the top of the vial, turn the vial upside down and they all fly from the bottom to the top. d. Fish swim rapidly at warmer temperatures and slowly at colder temperatures. e. Lice on the human body travel in a straight line when environmental conditions are favourable; in unfavourable environments they turn until a favorable environmental zone is once again encountered. 11. Plants that exhibit phenotypic plasticity and are grown under sun and shade conditions develop certain characteristic traits. Which of the following is a characteristic trait that you would expect to find in shade plants (when compared with sun plants)? a. b. c. d. e. Longer internode length Shorter plant height Smaller leaf surface area Thicker leaf cross-section Petioles oriented to promote self-shading 12. Which statement is FALSE? a. A locus is a specific location on a chromosome where a gene is located. b. In malaria-infested regions of Africa heterozygous individuals that possess the sickle-cell trait have a better chance of survival than homozygous normal individuals. c. When calculating allele frequencies, 1 & p = q. d. An allele is an alternate form of a gene. e. Genetic drift has no influence on allele frequencies in large populations. C ode 22-02W page 4 13. Which statement is CORRECT? a. b. c. d. e. Calcium nitrate is added to hydroponic solutions to increase the toxicity of the metal salts in solution. Populations of Deschampsia growing in normal soils are composed entirely of one genotype. When the apical meristem of a Deschampsia root tip is removed the root will not grow. In Deschampsia, tolerance to copper also confers tolerance to other heavy metals, such as nickel. Tillers of Deschampsia from Manitoulin Island are expected to have zero root growth in the control solution. 14. As presented in the ROM tour, the evolution of silk production was an important adaptation in spiders. Which of the following is least likely to be a way in which spiders use silk? a. b. c. d. e. Create shelters. Ingested as a source of food. Protect eggs. Used by immature spiders to disperse to new habitats. Capture prey. 15. In protein electrophoresis, what are allozymes? a. b. c. d. e. Enzymes with multiple forms that are encoded from two or more loci. Enzymes that differ in mobility because of differences in alleles at two or more loci. Enzymes which consist of a single polypeptide chain. Enzymes that differ in mobility because of differences in alleles at a single gene locus. Enzymes which consist of two polypeptide chains. 16. A population of 200 diploid individuals is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The frequency of the dominant A allele is 40%. How many individuals are homozygous recessive? a. b. c. d. e. 96 72 36 32 16 C ode 22-02W page 5 17. The data below were obtained by a BIO150 class. Which statement about these data is CORRECT? Root lengths and computed tolerance indices Root length in Copper Root length in Control Tolerance index (%) “Unknown” 10 mm 56 mm 17.9 Sudbury 74 mm 60 mm 123.3 Cobalt 5 mm 40 mm 12.5 Manitoulin Island 8 mm 73 mm 11.0 Population Root length in N ickel Root length in Control Tolerance index (%) “Unknown” 73 mm 57 mm 128.1 Sudbury 72 mm 61 mm 118.0 Cobalt 64 mm 69 mm 92.7 Manitoulin Island 0 mm 74 mm 0 Population a. b. c. d. e. The “unknown” is from either Sudbury or Cobalt; more data are required to be certain. The “unknown” is from Sudbury. The “unknown” is from Cobalt. The “unknown” is from Manitoulin Island. Based on the data the place of origin of the“unknown” cannot be determined. 18. Which of the following have tubular sucking mouthparts? i. ii. iii. iv. v. a. b. c. d. e. Waterstriders Caterpillars Aphids Grasshoppers Cockroaches i, ii, and iv i and iii ii and iii ii, iv, and v iii and v C ode 22-02W page 6 19. Which statement best describes the orientation behaviours exhibited by sowbugs and pillbugs? a. b. c. d. e. Negative phototaxis and positive hygrokinesis Negative photokinesis and negative hygrotaxis. Positive phototaxis and positive hygrokinesis. Positive phototaxis and negative hygrokinesis. Positive photokinesis and negative hygrotaxis. 20. Which statement is FALSE? a. Palisade mesophyll cells are located directly beneath the upper epidermis in leaves. b. The BIO150 compound microscopes have controls to improve image contrast and regulate light intensity. c. The width of one ocular space is about 25 µm at magnifications of 4X, 10X, and 40X. d. Before absorbance of the chlorophyll extract is measured the spectrophotometer is calibrated by inserting a sample with methanol only and adjusting absorbance to zero. e. The Wavelength Control knob on a spectrophotometer is set to the peak wavelength for the substance being analyzed. 21. Populations of zebra mussels from Europe and North America have the same high genetic variability. What does this suggest about the number of individuals in the founder populations and the degree of genetic mixing between populations? a. b. c. d. e. The founder populations were large; frequent genetic mixing has occurred. The founder populations were large; genetic mixing has not occurred. The founder populations were small; genetic mixing has not occurred. The founder populations were small; frequent genetic mixing has occurred. North American populations went through a bottleneck after establishment; genetic mixing has not occurred. 22. Which statement is FALSE? a. Only mutations that occur in the cells that produce sperm and eggs can be transmitted to the next generation. b. Beneficial mutations are rare. c. Mutations occur during the process of DNA replication. d. Dominant lethal mutations can be passed on to the next generation by individuals that are heterozygous. e. Mutations that increase an individual’s fitness are favoured by natural selection. C ode 22-02W page 7 23. In the BIO150 protein electrophoresis experiment the observed heterozygosity for the MDH-2 (malate dehydrogenase) locus was: a. higher in quagga mussels than in zebra mussels. b. calculated by determining the frequency of heterozygous individuals. c. low in zebra mussels, suggesting that no genetic variation was lost when zebra mussels were transported to North America from Europe, where there is high heterozygosity. d. equal to the expected polymorphism. e. very high in both quagga and zebra mussels. 24. Which of the following provides evidence for a cost to metal tolerance? a. b. c. d. e. Roots from Sudbury tillers are shorter in the control solution than in the nickel solution. Roots from Cobalt tillers are longer in the control solution than in the nickel solution. Roots from Manitoulin Island tillers are shorter in the control solution than in metal solutions. In metal solutions, roots from Sudbury and Cobalt tillers are longer than Manitoulin Island tillers. In metal solutions, roots from Manitoulin Island tillers are longer than Sudbury and Cobalt tillers. 25. What characteristic distinguishes snakes from lizards that do not have legs? a. Snakes have tails and legless lizards do not. b. Poisonous snakes often mimic harmless snakes, whereas harmless legless lizards often mimic poisonous legless lizards. c. The lower jaw in snakes is fixed to the upper jaw, whereas in legless lizards they move independently of each other. d. Snake eggs have shells and are laid on land, while legless lizards lay shell-less eggs in water. e. Eyelids are absent in snakes and present in legless lizards. Questions 26 to 65: Lecture Questions 26. In evolutionary thinking, a conflict exists between parents and offspring over provisioning. This is because: a. b. c. d. e. the increase in current offspring fitness (gained by provisioning) is valued more by the parent. the increase in current offspring fitness (gained by provisioning) is valued less by the offspring. there are differences in parental investment into offspring. parents and offspring value future offspring/siblings equally due to genetic relatedness. parents and offspring value future offspring/siblings differently due to genetic relatedness. C ode 22-02W page 8 27. Which feature of a mutant allele, causing its bearer to behave altruistically, would prevent it from spreading in the population? a. b. c. d. e. It increases the spread of other alleles at the expense of its own spread. It increases its own spread at the expense of the spread of other alleles. It also causes that individual to direct its altruism toward genetic relatives. It tends to be found in groups where other individuals also carry copies of this mutant altruistic allele. It satisfies the conditions of Hamilton’s Rule. 28. Which process is NOT an aspect of sexual selection? a. b. c. d. e. Male choice Sperm competition Female choice Female anisogamy Sexual conflict 29. In which case is Hamilton’s Rule satisfied? a. b. c. d. e. b = 1, c = 1, R = 0.5 b = 2, c = 4, R = 1 b = 2, c = 1, R = 0.75 b = 2, c = 1, R = 0.25 b = 5, c = 5, R = 0.75 30. Which statement is most representative of an evolutionary biologist’s “ultimate” perspective? a. b. c. d. e. Female waterstriders resist mating because it decreases their survivorship. Longevity increases with body size. The ratio of “rovers” to “sitters” in fruitflies is 3:1 because there are two alleles involved.. Free radicals oxidize macromolecules and thereby cause aging. There is a genetic basis to infanticide. 31. Which of the following indicates that female Kentish Plovers (relative to males) tend to benefit from nest desertion? a. b. c. d. e. A relatively low time to re-mating in females. Relatively high brood survival when females deserted. Relatively low brood survival when males deserted. a and c b and c C ode 22-02W page 9 32. The example of the plant Impatiens capensis presented in lecture was an example of: a. b. c. d. e. kin selection. group selection. reciprocity. imprinting. genetic relatedness. 33. Given that the growth hormone Igf-2 imprints in mice, what offspring sizes would be expected if you made the following two crosses? Cross 1: Monogamous female x Polygamous male Cross 2: Polygamous female x Monogamous male Cross 1 Cross 2 a. Large Intermediate b. Small Intermediate c. Large Small d. Small Large e. None of the above 34. Which statement is NOT consistent with the hypothesis of evolution under group selection presented in class? a. Groups with many altruistic individuals have a greater contribution to future generations than groups with few altruistic individuals. b. Groups with many altruistic individuals ensure that the species as a whole survive. c. There can be a tension between the direction in which selection acts at the level of the group versus the level of the individual within each group. d. Natural selection favours those individuals within each group who are not altruistic. e. Some groups contain both altruistic and non-altruistic individuals. 35. The St. Peter’s Fish examples presented in lecture were an example of : a. b. c. d. e. parent-parent conflict. parent-offspring conflict. sex ratio evolution. a predation-foraging trade-off. reciprocity. C ode 22-02W page 10 36. As defined in lecture, horizontal transfer is a process whereby: a. b. c. d. e. genetic material is passed from parent to offspring. genetic material is passed from parent to parent. plasmids are passed from parent to offspring. a and c b and c 37. The study of genetic imprinting in mice presented in class can be described as an example of: i. differential expression of alleles depending upon their parent of origin. ii. meiotic drive. iii. male-female conflict. a. b. c. d. e. i only i and ii i and iii ii only iii only 38. Which statement is FALSE? a. b. c. d. e. Antibiotic resistance genes are transmitted horizontally. Pathogenicity genes are transmitted horizontally. HIV is a retrovirus. Antibiotic genes are sometimes found on plasmids. Antibiotic use enhances the spread of drug-resistant strains of HIV. 39. Paul Ewald’s hypothesis for the evolution of virulence that was presented in lecture argues that ________________________ should be more virulent than directly-transmitted parasites. a. b. c. d. e. mosquito-borne parasites water-borne parasites vector-borne parasites a, b, and c None of a, b, and c C ode 22-02W page 11 40. Which statement does NOT apply to the oral polio vaccine? a. b. c. d. e. It has been treated with formaldehyde. It was the origin of a recent polio outbreak. It is a virus. It is alive. It was cultured in monkey cells. 41. Trade-offs may underlie which of the following? i. ii. iii. iv. a. b. c. d. e. Evolution of longevity Age at maturity Foraging rate Evolution of virulence i and ii i, ii, and iii i, ii, and iv iii and iv i, ii, iii, and iv 42. In the experiment on Chickadees foraging on pine cones, the decision variable was: a. b. c. d. e. energy per unit time. growth per unit mortality risk. patch residence time. the trade-off between energy gain in one patch and the number of patches visited. travel time. 43. In the Sage Grouse and others species in which the males gather in leks, which statement is least likely to be true? a. b. c. d. e. Females gain good genes for their offspring. Mating exposes females to parasites. Females access feeding territories from males. Sexual dimorphism is common. Males make relatively low investment in offspring. C ode 22-02W page 12 44. For which values of R and C, in the payoff matrix below, is the payoff frequency dependent? Hawk Hawk R/2 & C R Dove a. b. c. d. e. Dove 0 R/2 R = 4, C = 1/4 R = 5, C = 1/5 R = 11, C = 5 R = 2, C = 1/3 None of the above. 45. The “best” possible currency to measure in an optimization model would be: a. b. c. d. e. fitness. patch residence time. the relevant trade-off. the mean difference among treatment values for the decision variable. energy gain. 46. Parent-parent conflict over offspring provisioning is NOT likely to occur when: a. b. c. d. e. investment in males is high relative to females. the mating system is monogamy. the typical sex roles are reversed. the offspring is female rather than male. a and b 47. Which of the following statements applies to the “rover/sitter” polymorphism in fruitflies? i. It is an example of dominance in gene effects. ii. It is an example of plasticity. iii. It is an example of a genetic basis to a behaviour. a. b. c. d. e. i only i, ii, and iii i and iii ii only iii only C ode 22-02W 48. Which of the following can be approached using an “optimization” approach? a. b. c. d. e. Patch residency time Habitat choice Degree of virulence a and c a, b, and c 49. Which habitat would be favoured for foraging? Habitat Grams of food obtained per day Expected longevity a. 1 10 b. 6 4 c. 3 2 d. 6 6 e. 10 2 50. The Tungara Frog study can be considered an example of: a. b. c. d. e. the role of trade-offs in determining the evolution of a sexually selected trait. plasticity. predator attraction. female choice. All of the above 51. Which of the following reaction norms is most likely to be favoured by natural selection? a. b. c. d. e. i ii iii i and ii equally Cannot tell with information provided page 13 C ode 22-02W page 14 52. Which scientist is most closely associated with the theory of parental investment? a. b. c. d. e. Robert Trivers Michael Rose George Williams Andy Sih Earl Werner 53. In the Starling experiment, an increase in distance between the nest and food patches is likely to lead to: a. b. c. d. e. a decrease in patch residence time. a decrease in the amount of food consumed in any one patch. an increase in the amount of food consumed in any one patch. All of the above. None of the above. 54. Male-male competition is least likely to occur: a. b. c. d. e. prior to copulation. after copulation. when females are limiting. when males contribute substantial resources to their mates. when females store sperm. 55. Which of the following cases involves a selection experiment? a. b. c. d. e. The “O” lines of fruitflies created by Michael Rose. The inactivated polio vaccine created by Jonas Salk. The oral polio vaccine created by Albert Sabine. a and b a and c 56. Which behaviour is associated with sperm competition? a. b. c. d. e. Mate guarding Duration of copulation Sperm removal a and c a, b, and c C ode 22-02W 57. In dungflies, the prediction from the marginal value theory was that: a. b. c. d. e. sperm removal would occur late in copulation. males would copulate for shorter periods when female density was higher. females would reject smaller males. females would preferentially store sperm of larger males. All of the above 58. Sexual conflict is associated with: a. b. c. d. e. different evolutionary interests of the sexes. sexual selection. anisogamy. differential investment in offspring between the sexes. All of the above 59. The three colour morphs in Side-blotched Lizards: a. b. c. d. e. have a genetic basis. are maintained by frequency-dependent selection. are alternative strategies. a and c a, b, and c 60. In the “good genes” theory of sexual selection: a. b. c. d. e. females expressing the preference benefit indirectly. females expressing the preference benefit directly. females expressing the preference receive resources from the male. females must mate with more than one male. females are not limited by resources. 61. The declining force of selection with increasing age offers an explanation for: a. b. c. d. e. the mutation accumulation theory of aging. menopause. Down’s Syndrome. senescence. All of the above page 15 C ode 22-02W page 16 62. Mate copying refers to: a. b. c. d. e. males and females preferring the same traits. the switch in sex roles that occurs when parental investment is greater in males than females. mate choices based on the choice of others. a and b a, b, and c 63. Which statement is least likely to be true? a. b. c. d. e. Senescence is caused by many genes. Senescence is caused by some insurmountable error (e.g., poor DNA repair). The rate of senescence can evolve. Senescence is common in the animal kingdom.. Senescence probably occurred in prehistoric humans. 64. Antagonistic pleiotropy may: a. b. c. d. e. reflect costs of reproduction. offer an explanation for aging. offer an explanation for the results of Rose’s experiments on fruitflies. b and c a, b, and c 65. The main trade-off involved in the parasite adaptation hypothesis is: a. b. c. d. e. increased parasite replication leads to higher virulence and higher transmission. increased parasite replication leads to lower virulence and higher transmission. increased parasite replication leads to decreased virulence and higher transmission. increased parasite replication leads to increased spread of antibiotic resistance. that high virulence is correlated with high host life-span. END OF TEST Have you indicated the code of this test on your COMPUTER ANSWER SHEET? The test code is 2 2 ...
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