crim100 - CRIM100 STUDY GUIDE Three goals of criminal...

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CRIM100 STUDY GUIDE Three goals of criminal justice: doing justice, controlling crime, and preventing crime Types of Crimes: 1. Visible: an offense against persons or property, committed primarily by members of the lower class. Often referred to as “street crime” or “ordinary crime”, this type of offense is the one most upsetting to the public. street, ordinary- murder, rape etc→ mala in se (wrong in and of itself) 2. Political: an act, usually done for ideological purposes, that constitutes a threat against the state (such as treason, sedition, or espionage); also describes a criminal act by the state (ex: election fraud, ballot stuffing) 3. Organized: A framework for the perpetuation of criminal acts- usually in fields such as gambling, drugs, and prostitution- providing illegal services that are in great demand (mafia, ethnic groups ) 4. Victimless: offenses involving a willing and private exchange of illegal goods or services that are in strong demand. Participants do not feel they are being harmed, but the crimes are prosecuted on the ground that society as a while is being injured → mala prohibita (prostitution, drugs, gambling) 5. Hate: case in which the offender intentionally selects the person against whom the crime is committed because of the race, religion, color, disability, sexual orientation, national origin, or ancestry of that person. 6. Cyber: offenses that involve the use of one or more computers - No consensus on how we deal with each of these crimes Defining Crime: Mala in se: offenses that are wrong by their very nature Mala prohibita: offenses prohibited by law but not wrong in themselves Law, society and ideology Societies are what develop laws- the laws are shaped by societies ideology (values, beliefs) → all interact, part of a system→ laws are a social relationship- people come together to create laws
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Kinds of laws - Criminal→ crimes against society - - divided in substantive and procedural - Substantive criminal law: Law that defines acts that are subject to punishment and specifies the punishments for such offenses (penal code →laws and punishments) - Procedural criminal law: Law defining the procedures that criminal justice officials must follow in enforcement, adjudication, and corrections. (constitutional law) Defenses: Insanity→ gets used as a defense rarely -M’Naghten Rule: “Didn’t know what he was doing or didn’t know it was wrong” (knowing right from wrong)
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crim100 - CRIM100 STUDY GUIDE Three goals of criminal...

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