1namin compounds- Spring 2006 - Sparks

1namin compounds- Spring 2006 - Sparks - The formula for...

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Naming Compounds – The Basics Ionic Compounds (metal + nonmetal) 1. Know how to determine the charge on a monatomic (single atom) ion. Atoms gain or lose electrons to become more stable. For representative elements (those in the first two and last 6 columns) elements gain or lose electrons until they have the same number as the nearest noble gas. Elements on the left tend to lose electrons, those on the right tend to gain. Examples: Mg: Loses two electrons to have the same number as Neon. Now the magnesium ion has 12 protons (positive charges) and only 10 electrons (negative charges), so it has a net charge of +2: Mg 2+ . P: Gains three electrons to have the same number as Argon. Now the phosphorus ion has 15 protons (positive charges) and 18 electrons (negative charges), so it has a net charge of -3: P 3- . 2. Balance the charges to figure out the formula: Mg 2+ and P 3- Three magnesium ions would give a total positive charge of +6 (3 x 2+). Two phosphorus (phosphide) ions would give a total charge of -6 (2 x 3-).
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Unformatted text preview: The formula for magnesium phosphide would be Mg 3 P 2 . 3. Name ionic compounds without using prefixes to identify the number of each ion. The metal is named first as normal for the element. The nonmetal is named second with ide added instead of its usual ending. Example: Na 2 O: sodium oxide 4. When you have more than two elements: Know the polyatomic ions in table 5.7, p. 237. Name the metal ion first followed by the polyatomic name. Example: Na 2 SO 4 . sodium sulfate Covalent compounds (nonmetal + nonmetal) Use the prefixes in table 1.7, p.32 More metallic element (the one further to the left and further down) is named first with its regular name. The second element has the ide ending. Example: SO 3 . Sulfur trioxide. Note that this is NOT sulfite ion since there is no charge. Also note that the mono- prefix is left off, as is common when there is only one of the first element....
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