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back- Spring 2006 - Sparks

back- Spring 2006 - Sparks - 4 Hard water protective...

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1. Water Hardness: high concentration of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ a. Affect taste, no health issue, but can build up in pipe b. Measured as ppm CaCO 3 : Ca 2+ + CO 3 2- CaCO 3 c. Ca most common contributor d. Reactions of with Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ soap: i. Forms insoluable compound: bathtub rings and soap scum ii. Need more soap to form suds and cleanse 2. Softening Water a. Remove ions by add others to react with Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ i. Ex: add CO 3 2- : Ca 2+ + CO 3 2- CaCO 3 ii. Ties up Ca 2+ so soap can work, CaCO 3 rinsed away b. Remove Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ before used in washing machine through ion exchange 3. Lead: Pb dense, soft, easily worked, does not rust a. Old houses: used for water pipes before 1900, connects home until 1930 b. New Houses: solder used to join copper pipes 50-75% lead c. Drinking fountain tanks used lead-based solder d. Bad: Severe and permanent neurological problems e. Irritability, sleeplessness, irrational behavior f. Accumulates in bones and brain
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Unformatted text preview: 4. Hard water: protective coating of CaCO 3 in pipes 5. Soft water: no protective coating, more acidic, help lead dissolves 6. Trihalomehtanes a. Most common: Chloroform: ChCl 3 i. Suspected of causing liver and other cancers 7. Gas chromatography to detect and measure amounts a. Also used for analyzing trace amounts of toxic substances (PCBs, dioxins, gas, pesticides 8. Desalination methods: remove ions (remove salt from oceans) a. Distillation i. Heat to b.p., collect vapors and condense (very expensive b. Reverse osmosis (like a filter but using a membrane) i. Osmosis: solvent move through membrane from higher concentration to lower 1. equalizes concentration in many biological processes ii. reverse osmosis: apply pressure to salt water side to force water molecules through membrane...
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