Chapter 1 Part 2 - Research Methods(Chapter 1 part 2 Today's topics Scientific Method Experiments Observational Studies Generalizing from Research

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Today’s topics Scientific Method Experiments Observational Studies Generalizing from Research Research Methods (Chapter 1 - part 2)
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The Scientific Method Chapter 1: The Scientific Method In psychology, our investigations must be scientific Scientific method – an orderly, systematic process for asking questions and observing the answers. Basic Process: 1. Observe and describe some phenomenon 2. Form theory to explain phenomenon and predict results 3. Generate a testable hypothesis 4. Conduct research to test hypothesis 5. Refine theory
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Replication Chapter 1: The Scientific Method We must make our methods and results available to other researchers for inspection (e.g. publishing journal articles or presenting work at conferences) If other researchers can run our same experiment (i.e. replicate our study) with different subjects and get similar results, we will be more confident in the reliability our original findings. But remember: no matter how many times our hypothesis is confirmed, we never refer to it as proven !
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Research Methods Chapter 1: The Scientific Method Experimental Methods (experiments) variables manipulated probe cause and effect relationships Observational (descriptive) Methods Data gathered, but no variables manipulated e.g. correlations, case studies, surveys
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Formulating a Testable Hypothesis Chapter 1: The Scientific Method Hypothesis - a specific claim that is testable - defines what data (once we collect it!) would confirm or disconfirm that claim Example: Hypothesis: “movie stars always die in threes” Is it specific? No! • What exactly is a “movie star?” • What does it mean to “die in threes?” We need to make our hypothesis sufficiently specific before we can test our claim
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The Need for Systematic Data Collection Chapter 1: The Scientific Method We can’t just accept anecdotal evidence (informal reports) that some event has occurred Unreliable Unscientific No way to verify accuracy of report Report Bias – tendency for people to report some incidents but not others People tend to report successes but not failures (e.g. magnets to relieve pain, subliminal audio tapes to quit smoking) We need to objectively select our subjects and systematically record data from all of these subjects
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Experimentation Chapter 1: The Scientific Method Manipulate the variable of interest while holding other factors constant Goal – see how manipulating one variable affects some other variable. Independent variable – the variable that is manipulated in an experiment Dependent variable – the variable being measured in an experiment (subject’s response)
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Example: Visual Imagery in Word Recall Chapter 1: The Scientific Method Does visual imagery aid memory? Task – listen to a list of words and
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This note was uploaded on 11/23/2010 for the course SOCIAL SCI 68045 taught by Professor Hagedorn during the Fall '09 term at UC Irvine.

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Chapter 1 Part 2 - Research Methods(Chapter 1 part 2 Today's topics Scientific Method Experiments Observational Studies Generalizing from Research

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