Lec. 9 (2-2-2010) slides

Lec. 9 (2-2-2010) slides - What is Language? Language 1...

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Language 1 Psych 9B -- PSB 11B 1 Language 1 Structure and Meaning Language and the Brain Psych 9B -- PSB 11B 2 Language 1 What is Language? ± A set of symbols and principles for combining these symbols that allow for communication and comprehension. ± 5 Key Properties of Language ² creative ² structured ² meaningful ² referential ² interpersonal Psych 9B -- PSB 11B 3 Language 1 ± Spoken languages are composed of a hierarchy of building blocks that combine to form higher- and higher-level categories. At the bottom of this hierarchy are: ________ . A. morphemes B. phrases C. units of sound D. verbs Psych 9B -- PSB 11B 4 Language 1 Structured ± Language is structured at many levels; this structure determines what is an is not well formed and how meaning is conveyed ² Words plan * tlan ² Phrases the very tall boy * very boy tall the ² Sentences The boys climbed the trees *climbed the trees the boys Asterisks indicate something this is not allowed in English Psych 9B -- PSB 11B 5 Language 1 Meaningful ± Words and sentences convey ideas and concepts ± Structure & Meaningfulness are Independent Features of Language ² Colorless green ideas sleep furiously This is structured but not meaningful Psych 9B -- PSB 11B 6 Language 1 Referential ± Language is used to describe and make reference to things in the world ² that dog, the boy, this flower, me, you, each other,… ± Reference and meaning are independent ² That dog is barking. ² All men are created equal. non-referential, but meaningful
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Psych 9B -- PSB 11B 7 Language 1 Interpersonal Psych 9B -- PSB 11B 8 Language 1 Levels of language ± Phonology (sound structure) ± Morphology (structure of words) ± Syntax (structure) ± Semantics (meaning) ± Pragmatics (context) Psych 9B -- PSB 11B 9 Language 1 ± How do languages differ at the level of sound? A. Languages differ in terms of their use of rhythms for phrases. B. Languages differ in terms of their use of tone. C. Languages differ in terms of their use of word stress. D. All of the above answers are correct. Psych 9B -- PSB 11B 10 Language 1 Phonology ± The study of the sound patterns of language ± Phoneme: The smallest unit of sound that can be altered to change the meaning of a word ± In English, the words gin, kin, pin, tin, win all have different meaning due to the fact that the initial sound, or phoneme, is different Psych 9B -- PSB 11B 11 Language 1 Tone ± The way that the pitch of a word or utterance changes ± Tone plays a role in English ² Discriminating between different words or forms of words: e.g., object ² Discriminating different sentence constructions ± Unlike English, in many Asian languages, tone is a basic feature distinguishing syllables Psych 9B -- PSB 11B 12 Language 1 From http://www.wku.edu/~shizhen.gao/Chinese101/pinyin/tones.htm How Tones Distinguish Syllables in Mandarin Chinese
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Psych 9B -- PSB 11B 13 Language 1 Example of Tones Changing Meaning scolding, to scold horse linen,
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This note was uploaded on 11/23/2010 for the course SOCIAL SCI 68100 taught by Professor Wright during the Winter '10 term at UC Irvine.

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Lec. 9 (2-2-2010) slides - What is Language? Language 1...

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