Lec. 15 (3-4-2010) - Social Development 2 Socialization...

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1 Social Development 2 Psych 9B -- PSB 11B 1 Social Development 2 ± Socialization ± Parents, Peers, Groups
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2 Psych 9B -- PSB 11B 2 Social Development 2 Socialization ± Gleitman (p. 409): “The term socialization refers to the process through which someone learns how to be a member of a social group.” “Each of these aspects of socialization is shaped by many forces, but, for a young child, the major agents of socialization are certainly the parents.”
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3 Psych 9B -- PSB 11B 3 Social Development 2 Age Matters: ± In studies of children, there is a strong correlation with the religious attitudes of parents ² Low heritability (10% - 20%) ± Twin studies in adults give a different picture e.g., Waller et al. (1990), Psychological Science, 1 , 138-142. ² Heritability 50% ² Environmental influence could be separated ± Shared by family members (e.g. parents) ± Not shared by family members 10% 40%
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4 Psych 9B -- PSB 11B 4 Social Development 2 ± This picture shows a monkey raised in isolation biting itself as a strange monkey approaches. The monkey responds this way because A. It was raised without its mother B. It was raised without other young monkeys
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5 Psych 9B -- PSB 11B 5 Social Development 2 Motherlessness versus Peerlessness ± Consistent with the nurture hypothesis most presentations of the research by Harlow isolating infant monkeys focuses on their motherlessness ± When infant monkeys were isolated in groups of 3 or 4 without a mother, they are miserable as babies ² At a year old, they were behaving normally ± Monkeys reared with mothers but without peers are happy enough in infancy ² At a year old, they had serious social interaction problems ² The only group that fared worse were those raised in complete isolation
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6 Psych 9B -- PSB 11B 6 Social Development 2 Motherlessness versus Peerlessness in Humans ± Anna Freud studied a group of six young children who had survived a Nazi concentration camp “During the first days after arrival they destroyed all the toys and damaged much of the furniture. Toward the staff they behaved either with cold indifference or with active hostility. . . . In anger, they would hit the adults, bite or spit. . . . They would shout, scream, and use bad language.” ± Toward each other they behaved quite differently
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7 Psych 9B -- PSB 11B 7 Social Development 2 “It was evident that they cared for each other and not at all for anybody or anything else. They had no other wish than to be together and became upset when they were separated from each other, even for short moments. . . . The children's unusual emotional dependence on each other was borne out further by the almost complete absence of jealousy, rivalry, and competition. . . . There was no occasion to urge the children to "take turns"; they did it spontaneously since they were eager that everybody should have his share. . . .They did not tell on each other and they stood up for each other automatically whenever
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Lec. 15 (3-4-2010) - Social Development 2 Socialization...

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