Exam II study guide

Exam II study guide - Exam II study guide: Lecture 8: PLANT...

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Exam II study guide: Lecture 8: PLANT DIVERSITY Plant Systematics: Common names have evolved for plants over time, but one problem with that is there are several different names in different regions and can be mixed up. Genus: similar plant species form a group (genera-plural) Genera form families Families go into orders, class, divisions and kingdoms Kingdom, Division, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species “King David Came Over For Great Spaghetti” Names are binomials of genus and species Example: Homo Sapiens (humans) Acer rebrum (red maple) Acer saccharum (sugar maple) Taxonomic Hierarchy “King David Came Over For Great Spaghetti” 6 Kingdoms: Archaebacteria Eubacteria (true bacteria) Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia
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10 divisions: Bryophyta (mosses, liverworts) Psylophyta Lycophyta (club mosses) Sphenophyta (horsetails) Pterophyta (ferns) Cycadophyta (cycads) Ginkgophyta (ginkgo biloba) Coniferophyta (conifers) Gnetophyta (gnetophytes) Magnoliophyta (flowering plants) Species A set of individuals closely related by a common ancestor can reproduce with each other but not others. Morphological species concept: based on their morphological features (body) Biological species: a group of interbreeding populations, fertile offspring. Evolutionary species: a group of individuals with common evol. Lineage Many species look different but can still interbreed (dogs, plants) HOWEVER: some plants look the same but due to POLYPOIDY cant interbreed (ferns, evening primrose) Carlos Linnaeus: Father of Taxonomy. (systematic botany) Modern system of nomenclature Published Systema Naturae in 1753. Evolution
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Genetic change in population of organisms occurring over time. Inherited, not acquired traits Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (PRE-DARWIN) Theory that organisms have a force towards greater complexity But he believed acquired traits could be passed on to generations “Use it or lose it” theory and inheritance of acquired traits Stretching of giraffes to get higher leaves ( long necks) Charles Darwin 1809-1882 born in England 5 yr world tour as a naturalist Observes that island animals are similar to mainland animals but they show differences that are a reflection of their island lifestyles/ Marries his cousin and works for 16 yrs to publish “On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection” (1859) Controversial because of creationism Natural Selection Variation Member within a species exhibit individual differences, must be inheritable. Sexual Reproduction is KEY Overproduction Natural populations increase geometrically producing more offspring than will survive. Competition
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Exam II study guide - Exam II study guide: Lecture 8: PLANT...

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