how+does+exercise+make+muscles+stronger - Copy

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Q Q SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 99 MATT COLLINS Mark A. W. Andrews, professor of physiology and director of the independent study program at the Lake Erie College of Osteo- pathic Medicine, explains: The exact mechanism by which exercise augments strength remains unclear, but its basic principles are understood. Two processes appear to be involved: hypertrophy, or the enlarge- ment of cells, and neural adaptations that enhance nerve-mus- cle interaction. Muscle cells subjected to regular bouts of exercise, followed by periods of rest that include a sufficient intake of dietary pro- tein, undergo hypertrophy. (This should not be confused with short-term swelling resulting from water uptake into cells.) Im- proved muscle protein synthesis and incorporation of these pro- teins into cells cause the mus- cle-building effect. When a muscle cell is activated by its nerve cell, the interaction of the proteins responsible for muscle contraction actin and myosin generates force via changes in protein struc- ture called power strokes.
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