Engineering Structural Welding - Fabricators and Erectors...

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The serviceability of a product or structure utilizing the type of information presented herein is, and must be, the sole responsi- bility of the builder/user. Many variables beyond the control of The James F. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation or The Lincoln Electric Company affect the results obtained in applying this type of information. These variables include, but are not limited to, welding procedure, plate chemistry and temperature, weldment design, fabrication methods, and service requirements. This guide makes extensive reference to the AWS D1.1 Structural Welding Code-Steel, but it is not intended to be a comprehen- sive review of all code requirements, nor is it intended to be a substitution for the D1.1 code. Users of this guide are encouraged to obtain a copy of the latest edition of the D1.1 code from the American Welding Society, 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, Florida 33126, (800) 443-9353. Fabricators’ and Erectors’ Guide to Welded Steel Construction By Omer W. Blodgett, P.E., Sc.D. R. Scott Funderburk Duane K. Miller, P.E., Sc.D. Marie Quintana, P.E. This information has been provided by The James F. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation to assist the general welding industry. Copyright © 1999
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1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 2 Welding Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 2.1 SMAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 2.2 FCAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 2.3 SAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 2.4 GMAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 2.5 ESW/EGW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 3 Welding Process Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 3.1 Joint Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 3.2 Process Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 3.3 Special Situations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 4 Welding Cost Analysi s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 5 Welding Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 5.1 Effects of Welding Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 5.2 Purpose of Welding Procedure Specifications (WPSs) . . . . . . . . . . .17 5.3 Prequalified Welding Procedure Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 5.4 Guidelines for Preparing Prequalified WPSs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 5.5 Qualifying Welding Procedures By Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 5.6 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 5.7 Approval of WPSs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 6 Fabrication and Erection Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 6.1 Fit-Up and Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 6.2 Backing and Weld Tabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 6.3 Weld Access Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 6.4 Cutting and Gouging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 6.5 Joint and Weld Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 6.6 Preheat and Interpass Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 6.7 Welding Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 6.8 Special Welding Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 6.9 Weld Metal Mechanical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 6.10 Intermixing of Weld Deposits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Table of Contents Fabricators’ and Erectors’ Guide to Welded Steel Construction
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7 Welding Techniques and Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 7.1 SMAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 7.2 FCAW-ss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 7.3 FCAW-g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 7.4 SAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 7.5 GMAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 7.6 ESW/EGW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 8 Welder Qualification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 9 Weld Cracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 9.1 Centerline Cracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 9.2 Heat Affected Zone Cracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 9.3 Transverse Cracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 10 Weld Quality and Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 10.1 Weld Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 10.2 Weld Quality and Process-Specific Influences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 10.3 Weld Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 11 Arc Welding Safet y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
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1 Fabricators’ and Erectors’ Guide to Welded Steel Construction 1 Introduction/Background This Fabricators’ and Erectors’ Guide to Welded Steel Construction has been produced by The Lincoln Electric Company in order to help promote high quality and cost- effective welding. This guide is not to be used as a sub- stitute for the AWS D1.1 Structural Welding Code, or any other applicable welding code or specification, and the user bears the responsibility for knowing applicable codes and job requirements. Rather, this document incorporates references to the D1.1-96 code, and adds
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