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Lesson 6 - Unit 5 Lesson 6 The Civil War Begins Lesson...

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Unit 5 Lesson 6 - The Civil War Begins Lesson Objective:  In this lesson, the student will:  compare the human resources of the North and the South at the beginning of the Civil War and analyze  the advantages, disadvantages and strategies of each side.  identify new military technology and explain its impact on the final outcome of the war.  The Civil War Begins When the southern states seceded from the Union many in the North were glad. Horace Greeley of the  New York  Tribune  said, “Go, erring sisters, depart in peace.” Many thought that the Southern states had entered the Union  peacefully and should be able to leave peacefully. President Buchanan disagreed, but was indecisive and unable  to act. When Lincoln took office he too was cautious, but he soon began to make some decisions that would  change the course of American history.  The First Shot – Fort Sumter There were several federal army garrisons stationed in the South. One of these garrisons was located at Fort  Sumter, in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina. The garrison at the fort was running out of supplies and needed  reinforcements, but supplying the fort meant making an irrevocable decision. Evacuating the fort would recognize  secession as legal, but reinforcing it would mean war. Dissolving the Union was unacceptable to Lincoln, so he  chose a middle ground of sending in supplies but not reinforcements.  South Carolina’s extremists responded to President Lincoln's decision on the morning of April 12, 1861. The South  Carolina militia, under the command of P.G.T. Beauregard, opened fire on the fort. The following day the Union  commander surrendered the fort and the Union garrison sailed north. It was amazing that no one was killed in the  first battle of the Civil War -- the bloodiest war in American history. The news of Fort Sumter united the North against an aggressive South. Shortly after the fall of the fort, President  Lincoln called for volunteers to fight in the Union army. That became the catalyst for the Virginia legislature to vote  to secede from the Union. They were followed by Arkansas, Tennessee and North Carolina. The western section  of Virginia did not agree with secession, however, and eventually West Virginia seceded from Virginia and became  the thirty-fifth state.   North South Advantages Four-fifths of the factories  Three-fourths of food  production  Two-thirds of the railroad  mileage, which enabled the  North to transport men and  supplies much faster and in  greater numbers  A population of 22 million to  draw from for both the 
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