Second Exam Study Questions

Second Exam Study Questions - Second Exam Study Questions...

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Second Exam Study Questions: Omit the red questions for examination purposes 1. What are the properties of neuroglia? a) do not branch like neurons (not dendritic) b) do not conduct impulses c) serve as connective tissue d) others functions based on which of 4 classes (see below) 2a. What are the four classes of neuroglia? a) astrocytes a. establish proper relationships between cells b. scaffolds for neuronal guidance (*) structure (radial) c. establishment of BBB (blood-brain barrier) i. does not allow passage of drugs, hormones, or blood borne chemicals ii. O2, CO2, alcohol, and steroids are soluble iii. Facilitated transport (typ. Antiport) is possible iv. Glucose and aa will penetrate tight junction at pore d. form neural scar tissue e. take up excess glutamate (+) and GABA (-). (can degrade compounds and make new synthesis) b) oligodendrocytes a. make myelin sheath b. allow salutatory conduction c) ependymal cell a. synthesize CSF “brain physically floats” b. serve as dormant neural stem cells d) microglia a. phagocytes to engulf foreign particles or microorganisms 2b. Which class is important during a stroke (and why?), a. astrocytes. Without astrocytes, there would be excess glutamate in CNS which induces neuronal firing which causes more glutamate to be made (excitotoxicity) 2c. Which class is protective against brain damage? a. astrocytes??. Establish BBB, scaffolds, degrade NT, take up K+ b. ependymal cells??. Synthesize CSF 2d. Which assists to increase the conduction velocity of nerve impulses? Oligodendrocytes. Creat myelin sheath allowing saltatory conduction 2e. Which assists in immune responses? Microglia. Phagocytic scavengers 3. Know the structure/functions of the major brain regions and which common diseases are associated with which brain regions.
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a) Cerebral Cortex a. brain damage (see #4) b) Basal Nuclei c) Thalamus d) Hypothalamus e) Cerebellum and Hippocampus f) Brain Stem 4. What are some common clinical causes of brain damage? i) temperature. Tb>104 =damage Tb>107 = irreversible ii) shaken -damage to cortex neural tissue (angst cranium) iii) O2 deprivation-no anaerobic metabolism; must pump gluc iv) cerebrovascular accident-occulusion of cerebral blood vessel blocks O2 and glucose delivery. O2 neurons release l-glutamate excitotoxicity v) headaches-increased intracranial psi (tumor or hemorrhaging) -swelling (due to meningitis or encephalitis) vi) brain tumors 5. What are the physiological mechanisms underlying a cerebrovascular accident and what are some new treatments to prevent further neuronal cell death? 6. What are some modern technical devices used to detect brain tumors and what are their principles of operation? 7.
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This note was uploaded on 11/24/2010 for the course PHY 2049 taught by Professor Any during the Spring '08 term at University of Florida.

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Second Exam Study Questions - Second Exam Study Questions...

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