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Test_1_Study_Questions_just printed version

Test_1_Study_Questions_just printed version - First Exam...

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First Exam Study Questions: 1. What is the major organizational plan of the body? And what are the four primary tissues? Organizational plan of the body a) Chemical level – various atoms and molecules make up the body b) Cellular level – cells are the basic unit of life c) Tissue level – tissues are groups of cells of similar specialization (see below) d) Organ level – organ is unit made of several tissues e) Body system level – body system is collection of related organs f) Organism level – body systems are packaged together into a functional whole body g) muscle – movements; cells specialized for contracting, generating tension, and producing movement Four Primary Tissues a) muscle – movements; cells specialized for contracting, generating tension, and producing movement b) nervous – communication, coordination control; cells are specialized for initiating and transmitting electrical impulses c) epithelial – protection, secretion (glands), & absorption; cells specialized for exchanging materials between cells and environment d) connective – blood (plasma); has relatively few cells dispersed in abundance of extracellular matrix 2. Deliniate between the 3 types of muscle (skeletal, cardiac, and smooth)? a) skeletal – voluntary, moves the skeleton ex. joints, etc. b) cardiac – involuntary, pumps blood out of heart c) smooth – involuntary, controls movement through hollow tubes &organs 3. What is the substructure of the neuron (functional unit of the nervous system)? Input Zone Dendrites (receives signals) & cell body (houses nucleus & organelles) 1
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Trigger Zone Axon Hillock (Integration occurs here, initiates axon potential) Conducting Zone Axon (conducts AP in undiminishing fashion, often over long distances) Output Zone Axon Terminals (where Ca2+ channels open and NTs released) 4. Anatomical classifications of epithelial tissue and 2 primary functions? Anatomical classifications a) epithelial sheets – layers of tightly joined cells that cover and line parts of the body serving as a boundary (ex. Outer layer of skin & lining of digestive tract) b) secretory glands – epitheial tissue derivatives specialized for secreting a. exocrine glands – secrete through ducts to outside of body or cavity (ex. Sweat glands & glands secreting digestive juices) b. endocrine glands – lack ducts and release hormones internally to the blood (ex. Pancreas secretes insulin in blood) 5. Four types of connective tissue? 1) loose connective tissue – attaches epithelial tissue to underlying structures 2) tendons – attach skeletal muscle to bone 3) bone – gives body shape, support and protection 4) blood – transports materials 6. Distinguish between ICF, ECF, plasma, and interstitial fluid? ICF (intracellular fluid) – fluid collectively contained within all body cells ECF (extracellular fluid) – ISF + Plasma; outside cell, internal environment of body plasma – real connective tissue (46-50%); fluid portion of blood ISF (Interstitial fluid) – surrounds and bathes cells 8. How is the structure of the phospholipid bilayer important to physiological functions?
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