Lecture4

Lecture4 - b) deactivating enzymes intercept...

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Lecture 4 Ionotropic and Metabotropic Receptors -Ionotropic receptors are liogand-gated ion channels -these receptors (ion channels) open when the ligand (neurotransmitter) binds to them -Metabotropic receptors can open G-protein-gated ion channels -these receptors activate G-proteins which then open separate G-protein-gated channels -opening of sodium channels will produce an excitatory post synaptic potential (EPSP) the membrane potential will become less negative it may still not be sufficient to generate an action potential (the threshhold may not be reached) -opening of potassium or chloride channels will produce an inhibitory post synaptic potential (IPSP) the membrane potential may become more negative Reasons neurotransmitters don’t reach receptors a) diffusion, before they reach the cell
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Unformatted text preview: b) deactivating enzymes intercept neurotransmitters c) reuptake occurs, and neurotransmitters are taken back into the axon SNPs-SNP is a single nucleotide is responsible for the difference between 2 alleles-some genes exist in several copies on the same chromosome-the environment can transiently or permanently turn genes on and off-genes can be silenced by methylation (adding CH-3 groups) to DNA nucleotides-this methylated state can be inherited without changes in the DNA sequence itself-this new field is known as epigenetics Development-Nervous system is part of the ectoderm Neural tube defects-anencephaly (the front end of the tube does not close; the brain fails to develop; lethal-spina bifida (the back end of the tube does not close)...
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