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Unformatted text preview: ormally classifying groups of organisms • Evolutionary lineages How do you do comparative analyses?
• Look to see how things differ
– How do you “see” differences? do you see differences? • Look to see how things are the same
– How do you “see” sameness? Ways to Make Phylogenetic Trees
• Assessing overall similarity • Cladistics (phylogenetic systematics)
– Willi Hennig (1956, 1966) – Incorporates actual evolutionary relationships – Derived versus primitive characters 2 Types of Shared Characters:
• Primitive • Derived 5 9/1/2010 We build phylogenies based on comparisons of:
Genus: Felis Genus: Papio Genus: Pan Genus: Homo cats baboon chimpanzees & bonobos humans • Gross anatomy • Molecules • Fossils Homology:
Similarity due to descent from a common ancestor (indicates evolutionary relationship) Analogy:
Similarity due to independent evolution for a common function in separate groups
(This is also called convergent evolution.) (Can also be called parallel evolution if the organisms are pretty closely related.) Icthyosaur Porpoise Mice An example of parallel evolution… Tiger shark Aye-aye 6 9/1/2010 The Controversy of Evolution
• Before Darwin
– variation is just “noise” – Teleology (order is inherent) – A static world static world Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
• 1744-1829 • French anatomist • Mechanism of evolution: inheritance of acquired characteristis (use and disuse of body parts) • Progressive evolution • Heredit...
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This note was uploaded on 11/26/2010 for the course IB 35AC taught by Professor Hlusko during the Spring '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.
- Spring '08