Class_9_2010_for_web

Class_9_2010_for_web - IB35 Human Biological Variation...

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1 IB35 Human Biological Variation Class #9 Topics for today: mtDNA, YDNA & ancestry testing Some more genetics Types of DNA – Nuclear • Autosomal chromosomes • Sex chromosomes (X and Y) Mitochondrial DNA – Mitochondrial DNA Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) • Provides the energy needed for cellular function • Circular rather than linear • 100s – 1,000s of copies per cell • Sequenced completely in 1981 • 5-10 times faster mutation rate than nuclear DNA • No recombination or segregation • Maternally inherited (mostly) • Cann, Wilson, & Stoneking 1987 study mtDNA Phylogeny of Modern Human Populations outgroup Africans Africans + everyone else
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2 Modern Human Origin Hypotheses • Multiregionalism • Replacement (Out of Africa) H. sapiens frica Europ sia E. Euro H. sapiens TIME H. erectus e pe H. erectus The Molecular Clock • The molecular clock hypothesis holds that for any given DNA sequence, the rate of evolution is approximately constant over all evolutionary lineages. • Requires calibration with fossils What they found: • Cann, Wilson, & Stoneking 1987 study • Most variation is in African populations • Variation of other populations is subsumed
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This note was uploaded on 11/26/2010 for the course IB 35AC taught by Professor Hlusko during the Spring '08 term at Berkeley.

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Class_9_2010_for_web - IB35 Human Biological Variation...

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