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class_14_2010_notes - Lecture#14 Darwinsblackbox...

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10/11/2010 1 IB35 Human Biological Variation Lecture #14 Topics for today: What we look like ( What Mendel can tell us about eye color, hair & our ears ) Darwin’s black box “The laws governing inheritance are for the most part unknown.” (Origin of Species, 3rd ed 1869 , p.14) “Some naturalists have maintained that all variations are connected with the act of sexual reproduction; but this is certainly an error…” (Origin of Species, 3 rd ed 1869, p.11) Gregor Mendel 1822-1884 Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance 1865 Inheritance is particulate; it operates through the transmission of discrete bits of self-producing matter. 1. Offspring get their ‘factors’ equally from both parents 2. ‘factors’ are inherited independently of each other Allele an alternative form of a gene at a paritcular locus Locus A particular place on a chromosome
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10/11/2010 2 Homozygous: having the same alleles at a particular gene locus on homologous chromosomes Heterozygous : having two different alleles at the same gene locus on homologous chromosomes Dominant : the allele or phenotype that is expressed in a heterozygote Recessive : an allele that is expressed when homozygous but not expressed when heterozygous Phenotype: the observed attribute(s) of a cell or individual, brought about by the interaction of genotype and environment Genotype:
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