ismail_etal_2009 - Mini Review Dev Neurosci 2010;32:91100...

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Fax +41 61 306 12 34 E-Mail karger@karger.ch www.karger.com ±Mini±Review± Dev Neurosci 2010;32:91–100 DOI: 10.1159/000313339 Screening, Diagnosing and Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Is This Syndrome Treatable? Sahar Ismail Stephanie Buckley Ross Budacki Ahmad Jabbar G. Ian Gallicano  Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University Medical Center, ±Washington,±D.C.± ,±USA ±Introduction± Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in the USA occurs in rates ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 per 1,000 live births, de- pending on the populations studied and the surveillance methods used [Centers for Disease Control and Preven- tion, 2009]. This makes FAS one of the leading, known preventable causes of mental retardation and birth de- fects. Infants exposed to alcohol and diagnosed with FAS typically develop facial irregularities, central nervous system abnormalities and growth retardation [Missouri Department of Mental Health, 1994]. All women of re- productive age who are sexually active, not using effective birth control, and who consume alcohol are at a potential risk for having a child with FAS [Centers for Disease Con- trol and Prevention, 2009]. FAS affects the baby, the family and the community as a whole. In a study of adverse adaptive behavioral prob- lems of individuals diagnosed with FAS, five significant areas were noted through life history interviews with 415 patients. Of these individuals, 61% experienced disrupted school experiences, 60% noted some form of trouble with the law, 50% reported an incidence of confinement de- fined as in jail, prison or psychiatric inpatient setting, 49% described repeated inappropriate sexual behaviors, and 35% reported alcohol and/or drug problems [Streiss- Key Words Fetal alcohol syndrome ? Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder ? Prevention ±Abstract± Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to a wide range of ad- verse effects on a developing fetus. As a whole, these tera- togenic outcomes are generally known as fetal alcohol spec- trum disorders, the most severe of which is fetal alcohol syn- drome (FAS). Clinically, children diagnosed with FAS vary greatly in their presentation of symptoms, likely due to the amount of alcohol and timing of exposure, as well as mater- nal and genetic influences. All these factors play a role in determining the mechanisms through which alcohol dam- ages a developing brain, the details of which are still largely unknown. However, continuing research and recent devel- opments have provided promising results that may lead to screening mechanisms and treatment therapies for children with FAS. Here we review the teratogenic effects of alcohol, strategies for detecting maternal alcohol consumption, identification of fetal biological markers, and prevention methods for FAS. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel Received: October 6, 2009 Accepted after revision: April 6, 2010 Published online: June 16, 2010 G. Ian Gallicano, Georgetown University Medical Center Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology 3900 Reservoir Road, NW, Medical Dental Building, Room NE205 Washington, DC 20057 (USA) Tel. +1 202 687 0228, Fax +1 202 687 1823, E-Mail gig
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This note was uploaded on 11/26/2010 for the course IB 35AC taught by Professor Hlusko during the Spring '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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ismail_etal_2009 - Mini Review Dev Neurosci 2010;32:91100...

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