W4IntLect

W4IntLect - CPU And Chip Sets 1 CPU and Chip Set CPU...

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1 CPU And Chip Sets
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2 CPU and Chip Set CPU (central processing unit) Most important component Chip set Controls memory cache, external buses, and peripherals ports
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3 CPU Form Factors SEP (Single Edge Processor) SECC (Single Edge Contact Cartridge) SECC2 (Single Edge Contact Cartridge, version 2) PPGA (Plastic Pin Grid Array) FC-PGA (Flip Chip Pin Grid Array)
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4 Central Processing Unit The heart of a personal computer. In it are all of the software instructions and math logic calculations carried out Earlier versions allowed for the addition of a math coprocessor or floating- point unit (FPU) Typically the most expensive component.
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5 AMD K7arch Athlon Sempron Athlon XP Duron AMD K8architectu Athlon 64 Athlon 64 X2 Opteron Sempron 64 Pentium 4 Pentium D Celeron Celeron D Intel NetBurstarchit Celeron Dual-Core Pentium Dual-Core Core 2 Duo / Quad Intel Corearch Current (2008) CPU’s
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6 CPU Terminology Bus speed Frequency or speed at which data moves on a bus Only the fastest bus connects directly to the CPU (motherboard bus, system bus, host bus, memory bus, or front side bus) Processor speed Speed at which CPU operates internally The multiplier System bus speed x multiplier = processor speed
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7 Processor PipeLine depth The number of stages / steps it takes the processor to complete an instruction / command. P3 - 12 stages P4 - 20 stages Athlon - 11 stages The shorter the stage – the faster the process The longer the pipeline the more complex an instruction can be
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8 Attributes Used to Rate CPUs Speed (in MHz) Efficiency of programming code Number of transistors Number of registers Word size Data path size Maximum number of memory addresses Size of internal cache Multiprocessing abilities Special functionality Pipe line depth
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9 Processor Speed Ratings A computer system’s speed is measured as a frequency, usually expressed as a number of cycles per second A single cycle is the smallest element of time for the processor. Every action requires at least one cycle and usually multiple cycles. To transfer data to and from memory, a modern processor needs a minimum of three cycles to set up the first memory transfer and then only a single cycle per transfer for the next three to six consecutive transfers.
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10 Clock Speeds An oscillator or electronic clock is placed  on motherboards and configured through  jumpers to yield a specific frequency. Clock speed is a frequency  measurement written as MHZ  (megahertz) MHz refers to  cycles per second   thus one  MHz equals one million cycles per second. Frequency of motherboard determines the  processor chip’s running speed.
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11 CPU clock speed Measured in Mega/Giga Hertz Currently CPU ratings are surpassing the 4 GHz mark Intel processors have higher clock speeds than AMD The actual number comes from the FSB speed multiplied by the clock multiplier
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W4IntLect - CPU And Chip Sets 1 CPU and Chip Set CPU...

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