Lect19_[Compatibility_Mode]

Lect19_[Compatibility_Mode] - Physics 344 Foundations of...

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Physics 344 Foundations of 21 st Century Physics: Relativity, Quantum Mechanics and heir Applications Their Applications Instructor: Dr. Mark Haugan Office: PHYS 282 haugan@purdue.edu TA: Dan Hartzler Office: PHYS 7 dhartzle@purdue.edu Grader: Shuo Liu Office: PHYS 283 liu305@purdue.edu Office Hours: If you have questions, just email us to make an ppointment. e enjoy talking about physics! appointment. We enjoy talking about physics! Notices: Locate your old copy of Matter & Interactions Volume II
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High-Energy Particle Physics and the Structure of Matter The understanding that ordinary matter is constructed of atoms was used often Physics 172 and 272 to connect what might otherwise have seemed like in Physics 172 and 272 to connect what might otherwise have seemed like completely different topics, for example, mechanics and thermal physics. So was the understanding that atoms of different elements are distinguished y the number of electrons they contain bound to a tiny, massive nucleus by e u be o e ec o s ey co a bou d o a y, ass e uc eus consisting of an equal number of protons and enough neutrons to account for the rest of the nuclear mass. he field of high- nergy particle physics is a natural continuation of research The field of high energy particle physics is a natural continuation of research that established the model of the nuclear atom described above. The development of that model began the latest stage of the quest to understand the most fundamental constituents of matter. Interestingly, this occurred only about 100 years ago!
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Atoms and Proportions Indirect evidence that each chemical element was an amalgam of identical particles with a specific mass was first reported about 200 years ago. This simple model of of the structure of matter accounted for the observation that elements combined to form compounds and were extracted from the decomposition of compounds in integer proportions by weight. ome of Faraday’s 1834 data on the electrolysis of anode + ammeter - cathode So e o a aday s 83 da a o e e ec o ys s o water illustrates the point. The cell shown has a platinum anode and zinc cathode. Faraday collected the hydrogen gas released at the anode nd monitored the loss of mass from the zinc and monitored the loss of mass from the zinc electrode as it oxidized and the zinc oxide dissolved. He found that the mass of hydrogen collected was irectly proportional to the mass of zinc lost from the directly proportional to the mass of zinc lost from the cathode. Indeed, knowing the relative masses of the elements’ atoms (still hypothetical in 1834) inferred from other chemical data, he could account for the ratio he observed if 2 atoms of hydrogen and 1 of oxygen were released as each water molecule decomposed and if 1 atom of oxygen combined with 1 atom of zinc to form the zinc oxide compound that dissolved.
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This note was uploaded on 11/26/2010 for the course PHYS 344 taught by Professor Garfinkel during the Spring '08 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.

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Lect19_[Compatibility_Mode] - Physics 344 Foundations of...

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