Bio Class notes

Bio Class notes - O ctober 1 s t , 2010 Flow of material...

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October 1 st , 2010 Flow of material & information Genetics: genotype> phenotype S strain smooth has a defense against the mouse immune system: one makes capsule and one does not Phenotype (protein) Avery et al Smooth (normal enzyme wild type) Rough (broken enzyme mutant) Phenotype is heritable Isolate colony dilute to low concentration, plate onto agar, and let single bacterium grow into colony From info coded in DNA, to info coded in RNA, to proteins that fold Types of mutation Point mutation- new nucleotide Deletion mutation- deleting out whole certain Insertion mutation – inserting fresh DNA into genome What happens to mut1 phenotype if we transform DNA of mut3 straun into mut1 strain Prototroph- complementation by mutant allesls affect different genes Complementation tells us number of genes in pathway October 6 th , 2010 Ultimately what the cell uses is monosaccharide Fatty acids and phospholipids- make bilayer Can also store fatty acids and triglycerides as a sou rce of carbon and energy Energy from glucose
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Can oxidize glucose with 6 O- make 6CO2 and 6 H2O Multistep pathway: Cell peels energy away in discrete cells To store energy in cofactors so it can use energy in other metabolic reactions Uncontrolled combustion: What if we burned it all at once? Raising 371 degrees at once is not helpful or safe for the body Review of chemistry reactions ΔH- free energy buried in a bond ΔG: change in free energy Relating ΔG to equilibrium Equation with RT Gi: free energy of given component Gi° is the free energy of that component under standard conditions R is gas constant=8.315JK -1 mol -1 The only thing that is not 1M in the body is water At equilibrium, there is no longer a change in free energy or to phrase it another way the free energies of the products and the reactatcs are equal so there is no dirivng force to push the reaction If ΔG is negative- equilibrium towards products Interested in “activity” not concentration Glycolosis occurs in cytoplasm Reactions are coupled: how the cell gets energy out of the system and into the system ΔG does not equal ΔG 0 because RTlnK If we set ΔG to 0, ΔG 0 is now equal to RTlnK Knowing K can get us ΔG 0 but then we need to know conditions in cell to get ΔG Replacing K with concentrations [A][B]etc. helps us figure out ΔG
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Hexikinase (catalyst) approaches a globular molecule with a stereospecificity that lowers the activation energy Highly conserved pathway suggest that it was in use in an ancestor common to bacteria, archea and eukaryotes Coupled reactions ensure a –ΔG ATP ADP is extremely favorable Covalent bond cleavage of glucose to get 2 products: 1 product (?) used in next step. So as this product is depleted its favoring the left side of the reaction (using up the
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Bio Class notes - O ctober 1 s t , 2010 Flow of material...

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