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A&PI_Lab11.docx - A&PI Lab 11 Explore Senses Senses are the...

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A&PI Lab 11Explore SensesSenses are the faculties by which humans and animals interpret stimuli fromeither inside or outside of the body. The five traditional faculties are taste,touch, smell, hearing, and vision. See Figure 1. However, senses expandbeyond the traditional faculties to interpret a multitude of stimuli, includingpH levels, temperature, chemical levels, and pain. All sensory input thatoccurs in the body is sent back to an integration center to be interpretedthrough either the central nervous system or sometimes ganglia.Somaticsensesinclude touch, pain, temperature, itch, and proprioception.Specialsensesinclude taste, smell, hearing, balance, and vision. Sensory systemsof the body range from just a few neurons to millions of sensory receptors;for example, the human eye has about 126 million receptors.Explore Taste and SmellTaste BudsTaste and smell are senses that interpret chemical stimuli, such as thechemicals found in food.Taste budsare anatomical structures containingsensory nerve cells calledchemoreceptorswhich detect chemical stimuli.As food is dissolved in saliva, it comes in contact with taste receptor cellslocated intaste pores, and the taste signal (stimuli) is relayed to the brain.A single taste bud includes around 50–150 chemoreceptors along withsupporting and regenerative cells. Taste receptors are present on the tongueas well as throughout the mouth. Figure 2 shows a microscopic image oftaste buds and taste pores.Figure 1.Senses.
Enhancement of Taste Through SmellThere are five types of taste receptors: sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami(savory). Sense of taste is enhanced when in conjunction with smell,orolfaction. The sense of smell is detected byolfactorychemoreceptorsof the nasal passage. The olfactory chemoreceptors areable to detect more subtle differences in chemical substances than aredetected by a human’s sense of taste alone.Theolfactory epitheliumis located in the most superior area of the nasalcavity responsible for interpreting chemical stimuli (odors). See Figure 3.Olfactory information is passed to the brain viaolfactory receptor cells.When chemical stimuli (odors) are inhaled into the nose, the chemicals travelthrough the inner chamber of the nasal passage and collect onto mucus thatsurrounds the immobile cilia (dendrites) of olfactory receptor cells. Inhaledchemicals dissolve in the mucus and then bind toodorant receptorproteinson the olfactory receptor cells.Figure 2.A microscopicimage of ataste bud.Figure 3.Microscopic imageof olfactoryepithelium.Notethe ciliatedolfactory receptorcells shown at thetop portion of thetissue.
Signal Pathway of SmellSignals are sent via olfactory receptor neurons through their axons (cranialnerve I) which extend through holes called foramina in the cribriform plate ofthe ethmoid bone in the skull. The signal moves toward olfactory bulbs thatare located on either side of the crista galli (the ridge) of the ethmoid bone.

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Term
Spring
Professor
N/A
Tags
Olfaction, olfactory receptor, Olfactory receptor neuron

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