Bb L1 Bonding - Energy, Atomic Orbitals, the Periodic Table...

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Energy, Atomic Orbitals, the Periodic Table of Elements and Bonding Revision 3/30/2010 9:04 pm
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Big Idea: Things tend to go to the lowest potential energy state This is often the “driving force” or reason that things happen. (Thermodynamics)
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Familiar Example Why will a ball tend to roll down a hill? It is moving to a state of lower potential energy
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Note This is very different from the question of why the chicken crossed the road. There is no intention involved with atoms! http://carondelet.net/Aspring08/Project%205/arianna/chicken_road.jpg
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Other Examples Electrons filling atomic orbitals Bonding
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Electron Energy Levels In an isolated atom, electrons occupy orbitals that have distinct energies and shapes. Electron as Particle or Wave? When working with orbitals, consider electrons to be waves
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Directional orbitals Notice the symmetry and directionality of the orbitals s orbitals are s pherically symmetrical All of the other orbitals have some directionality– they are not spherically symmetrical. Direction matters when combining orbitals.
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Electron Orbital Filling Sequence http://www.steve.gb.com/science/atomic_structure.html Memorize this!
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Filling Electron Energy Levels (orbitals) Electrons fill the lowest energy levels first Pauli Exclusion Principle : No two electrons can be in exactly the same state. Cannot have two electrons with the same spin in one orbital Cannot have 3 electrons in one orbital. Hund’s Rule : Electrons half-fill each orbital in a given energy level (sub shell) before pairing up. Extra stability of filled shells: Half-filled shells have some additional stability (lower energy) Completely filled shells have greatly lower energy (noble gases) These rules, along with the energy levels, determine the structure of the periodic table and predict the type of BONDING that can be expected between atoms.
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Electron Configurations Given a neutral atom with 6 electrons, write down the electron configuration. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 carbon What is this atom?
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Electron Configurations Given a neutral atom with 8 electrons, write down the electron configuration. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 oxygen What is this atom?
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Electron Configurations Given a di valent anion with 10 electrons, write down the electron configuration. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 O 2- What is this anion?
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Electron Configurations Given a neutral atom with 19 electrons, write down the electron configuration. [Ar] 4s 1 Potassium (K) What is this atom?
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Valence Electrons The valence electrons are the outermost electrons . These are the electrons that can interact with other atoms. Valence electrons are responsible for bonding.
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Bb L1 Bonding - Energy, Atomic Orbitals, the Periodic Table...

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