Covalent Bonding

Covalent Bonding - Covalent Bonds and Structures Hybrid...

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Unformatted text preview: Covalent Bonds and Structures Hybrid Orbitals, Secondary Bonds Last Edited 10/13/10 Topics Covalent Bonds Hybrid orbitals sp 2 and sp 3 Covalently Bonded Structure Examples Carbon allotropes Diamond Graphite Graphene structures Silicon Polymers Conducting polymers Learning Objectives Know shapes of sp 2 and sp 3 hybrid orbitals Identify what type of orbital is involved in a covalent bond, by looking at the structure Be able to draw and do calculations with the diamond cubic structure Explain how some polymers are insulating while others can be conducting. Know the effect of different types of polymer cross- linking Covalent Bonds Covalent bonds form from overlapping orbitals , allowing atoms to obtain a noble gas electronic configuration by sharing their outermost, unpaired valence electrons. Electron density is localized around the atoms, and concentrated between the atom nuclei in sigma bonds. Bonds are directional if the overlapping atomic orbitals are directional (overlapping sp 2 or sp 3 orbitals, for example) nergy Bonding molecular orbital Lower energy than separate atoms . Bonded. (Atomic orbitals are in phase ) Anti-bonding molecular orbital Higher Energy than separate atoms. Not bonded. (Atomic orbitals are out of phase) atomic orbital atomic orbital E s orbital s orbital 2 overlapping s orbitals p orbitals are found in isolated atoms When bonding, however, p orbitals often combine with s orbitals to form hybrid orbitals Hybrid Orbitals Often, s and p atomic orbitals combine to form hybrid orbitals: s + p = s p + s p s + p + p = s p 2 + s p 2 + s p 2 s + p + p + p = s p 3 + s p 3 + s p 3 + s p 3 Notice that the number of orbitals is conserved in forming hybrid orbitals, just as in forming molecular orbitals. p 2 hybrid orbitals make 3 covalent bonds arranged in a planar triangle (120) Images from : Introduction to modern inorganic chemistry By Rosemary Ann Mackay, W. Henderson via Google Books sp 2 sp 3 Wikipedia ikipedia Geometry of hybrid orbitals sp 3 hybrid orbitals make 4 covalent bonds arranged at tetrahedral angles (109.5) Hybrid Orbitals...
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Covalent Bonding - Covalent Bonds and Structures Hybrid...

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