Gauss' Law
Study Guide for Chapter 24
Outline
1. Electric Flux
Electric flux
represents the total number of electric field lines crossing through a surface.
The
basic equation for flux is
F
œ IE
where
is the magnitude of the electric field, and
is the area of the surface.
This equation
I
E
only applies if the electric field has
and is
to the surface.
constant magnitude
perpendicular
If the electric field
is at an angle to the surface, the flux is
E
F
)
œ † œIE
E
A
cos
where
is the area vector (pointing perpendicular to the surface), and
is the angle between
A
E
)
and
.
In particular, the flux is zero if
is parallel to the surface.
A
E
If a surface has several parts, then you must add together the flux from each part.
The most
general formula for flux involves an integral of the electric field over the surface.
2.
Gauss' Law
Gauss's law states that the net electric flux out of a closed surface is proportional to the amount
of charge inside:
F
F
%
out
in
œ
U
inside
!
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 Spring '10
 Turner
 Electrostatics, Magnetic Field, Electric charge, charge density

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