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PSY301 - Writing Assignment 3

PSY301 - Writing Assignment 3 - Chapter 10...

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Chapter 10. Personality (357-363) Page 357 Section 4: Personological and Life Story Perspectives Personological and life story perspectives stress that the way to understand the person is to focus on his or her life history and life story—aspects that distinguish the individual from all the other “snowflakes.” Think if 2 people have same levels of the big 5 traits, they don’t essentially have the same personality. HENRY MURRAY: psychodynamic notion of unconscious motivation , while Allport focused on conscious experience and traits Henry Murray's psychological profile of Adolf Hitler, developed in 1943 during World War II, serves as a model for criminal profiling today. That document accurately predicted that Hitler would commit suicide rather than be taken alive by the Allies. personology to refer to the study of the whole person. “ The history of the organism is the organism ,” meaning that in order to understand a person, we have to understand that person's history, including all aspects of the person's life. Motivation is a central part of personality psychology; enduring part of the person. Our motives are largely unknown to us, so that measures of motivation must be developed that do not just ask people to say what it is they want. Thus, along with Christiana Morgan, Murray developed the Thematic Apperception Test (or TAT ). Analyzing the unconscious motives that are revealed in imaginative stories: scoring procedures involve content analysis, a procedure in which a psychologist takes the person's story and codes it for different images, words, and so forth . Murray posited 22 different unconscious needs to explain behavior. The 3 needs that have been the focus of most current research are: 1. the need for achievement (an enduring concern for attaining excellence and overcoming obstacles), 2. for affiliation (an enduring concern for establishing and maintaining interpersonal connections), and 3. for power (an enduring concern for having impact on the social world). Page 358 DAVID WINTER analyzed the motives revealed in inaugural addresses of U.S. presidents. needs corresponded to later events during the person's presidency. Presidents who scored high on need for achievement (such as Jimmy Carter) were less successful during their terms. [need for achievement is about striving for personal excellence and may have little to do with playing politics, negotiating interpersonal relationships, or delegating responsibility.] Presidents who scored high on need for power tended to be judged as more successful (John F. Kennedy, Ronald Reagan) Presidents whose addresses included a great deal of warm, interpersonal imagery (suggesting a high need for affiliation ) tended to experience scandal during their presidencies (Richard M. Nixon).
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McAdams developed the life story approach to identity. Each of us has a unique life story, full of ups and downs. Represent our memories of what makes us who we are. A constantly changing narrative that serves to provide our lives with a sense of coherence.
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