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1312197061-Hybrid Cars

1312197061-Hybrid Cars - Hybrid Cars Running head HYBRID...

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Hybrid Cars 1 Running head: HYBRID CARS Hybrid Cars [Author’s Name] [Institution’s Name]
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Hybrid Cars 2 Hybrid Cars Low-pollution cars have been innovation with obvious implications for the urban environment. The Environment Agency is promoting the development and marketing of such vehicles, including electric cars, hybrid cars which combine electric and internal combustion engines, and gas-powered cars. These cars have not proved to be very popular, particularly given the high retail cost. Whilst the Agency plans to promote their use through production quotas, there is still doubt regarding the best means of promoting these cars. Hybrids team a small gasoline engine with an electric motor and extremely powerful computer to get the best of both worlds. The highly efficient gas engine not only provides some of the power to move the vehicle; more importantly, it generates the electricity for the electric motor and the electric battery pack, which also provide a mode of power, when needed, to supplement the power of the gasoline engine. The computer--Honda calls this integrated motor assist (IMA)—determines which of the two power sources operates and to what extent. The resulting operating range of the vehicle amounts to 300-400 miles or more, better than a typical mid- sized family sedan. The increasing consumption of primary energy worldwide is of increasing concern because of the greenhouse effect of CO2
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Hybrid Cars 3 emissions, and because conventional oil and natural gas supplies are expected to decline in the not-too distant future (IEA and OECD, 2003). This leads to greater interest in energy-efficient technologies, as technology still is the most important source for energy saving. The reshaping of existing patterns of energy consumption strongly affects the transportation sector, which accounts for 21.8% of total primary energy consumption worldwide in 2000, and will account for ca. 34% in 2050 (OECD countries: 28.1% and 40%, respectively) (IEA and OECD, 2003). Road transport is the second-largest sector of energy consumption, right after energy needed for HVAC (heating, ventilation, air conditioning). Hybrid cars are an energy-efficient technology, however, the introduction of more efficient products is often accompanied by rebound effects, which counteract the positive effect of increased efficiency. The definition, identification and quantification of rebound effects are areas of ongoing research (Greening et al., 2000 and Grepperud and Rasmussen, 2004). The rebound effect is also called take-back effect or backfire effect. Its definition varies among researchers, but the common denominator is that if a product or service becomes more efficient (regarding energy use or the use of some other resource), it will also become cheaper, which might give rise to increased demand. Generally, three different rebound effects
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Hybrid Cars 4 might be induced (Berkhout et al., 2000): increased demand for
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