INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS
C H A P T E R
After reading this chapter, students should:
Know what is the role of marketing communications
Know how marketing communications work
Know what are the major steps in developing effective communications
Know what the communications mix is and how it should be set
Know what is an integrated marketing communications program
Modern marketing calls for more than developing a good product, pricing it attractively,
and making it accessible to target customers. Companies must also communicate with
present and potential stakeholders, and with the general public.
The marketing communications mix consists of eight major modes of communication:
advertising; sales promotion; public relations and publicity; events and experiences;
direct marketing; interactive marketing; word-of-mouth marketing; and personal selling.
The communications process consists of nine elements: sender, receiver, message, media,
encoding, decoding, response, feedback, and noise. To get their messages through,
marketers must encode their messages in a way that takes into account how the target
audience usually decodes messages. They must also transmit the message through
efficient media that reach the target audience and develop feedback channels to monitor
response to the message.
Developing effective communications involves eight steps: (1) Identify the target
audience, (2) determine the communications objectives, (3) design the communications,
(4) select the communications channels, (5) establish the total communications budget,
(6) decide on the communications mix, (7) measure the communications results, and (8)
manage the integrated marketing communications process.
In identifying the target audience, the marketer needs to close any gap that exists between
current public perception and the image sought. Communications objectives may involve
category need, brand awareness, brand attitude, or brand purchase intention. Formulating
the communication requires solving three problems: what to say (message strategy), how
to say it (creative strategy), and who should say it (message source). Communications
channels may be personal (advocate, expert, and social channels) or nonpersonal (media,
atmospheres, and events). The objective-and-task method of setting the promotion