kotler_mm13e_im_17 - NC H A P T E R MARKETING...

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INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS 17 C H A P T E R LEARNING OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, students should: Know what is the role of marketing communications Know how marketing communications work Know what are the major steps in developing effective communications Know what the communications mix is and how it should be set Know what is an integrated marketing communications program CHAPTER SUMMARY Modern marketing calls for more than developing a good product, pricing it attractively, and making it accessible to target customers. Companies must also communicate with present and potential stakeholders, and with the general public. The marketing communications mix consists of eight major modes of communication: advertising; sales promotion; public relations and publicity; events and experiences; direct marketing; interactive marketing; word-of-mouth marketing; and personal selling. The communications process consists of nine elements: sender, receiver, message, media, encoding, decoding, response, feedback, and noise. To get their messages through, marketers must encode their messages in a way that takes into account how the target audience usually decodes messages. They must also transmit the message through efficient media that reach the target audience and develop feedback channels to monitor response to the message. Developing effective communications involves eight steps: (1) Identify the target audience, (2) determine the communications objectives, (3) design the communications, (4) select the communications channels, (5) establish the total communications budget, (6) decide on the communications mix, (7) measure the communications results, and (8) manage the integrated marketing communications process. In identifying the target audience, the marketer needs to close any gap that exists between current public perception and the image sought. Communications objectives may involve category need, brand awareness, brand attitude, or brand purchase intention. Formulating the communication requires solving three problems: what to say (message strategy), how to say it (creative strategy), and who should say it (message source). Communications channels may be personal (advocate, expert, and social channels) or nonpersonal (media, atmospheres, and events). The objective-and-task method of setting the promotion 1
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Chapter-by-Chapter Instructional Material budget, which calls upon marketers to develop their budgets by defining specific objectives, is the most desirable. In deciding on the marketing communications mix, marketers must examine the distinct advantages and costs of each communication tool and the company’s market rank. They must also consider the type of product market in which they are selling, how ready consumers are to make a purchase, and the product’s stage in the product life cycle. Measuring the effectiveness of the marketing communications mix involves asking
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kotler_mm13e_im_17 - NC H A P T E R MARKETING...

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