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ION AND SCANNING THE ENVIRONMENT 3 C H A P T E R LEARNING OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, students should: Know the components of a modern marketing information system Know what are useful internal records Know what is involved with a marketing intelligence system Know what are the key methods for tracking and identifying opportunities in the macroenvironment Know what are some important macroenvironment developments CHAPTER SUMMARY To carry out their analysis, planning, implementation, and control responsibilities, marketing managers need a marketing information system (MIS). The role of the MIS is to assess the managers’ information needs, develop the needed information, and distribute that information in a timely manner. An MIS has three components: (a) an internal records system, which includes information on the order-to-payment cycle and sales information systems; (b) a marketing intelligence system, a set of procedures and sources used by managers to obtain everyday information about pertinent developments in the marketing environment; and (c) a marketing research system that allows for the systematic design, collection, analysis, and reporting of data and findings relevant to a specific marketing situation. Marketers find many opportunities by identifying trends (directions or sequences of events that have some momentum and durability) and megatrends (major social, economic, political, and technological changes that have long-lasting influence). Within the rapidly changing global picture, marketers must monitor six major environmental forces: demographic, economic, social-cultural, natural, technological, and political-legal. In the demographic environment, marketers must be aware of worldwide population growth; changing mixes of age, ethnic composition, and educational levels; the rise of nontraditional families; and large geographic shifts in population. In the economic arena, marketers need to focus on income distribution and levels of savings, debt, and credit availability. In the social-cultural arena, marketers must understand people’s views of themselves, others, organizations, society, nature, and the universe. They must market products that 156
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Chapter-by-Chapter Instructional Material correspond to society’s core and secondary values, and address the needs of different subcultures within a society. In the natural environment, marketers need to be aware of the public’s increased concern about the health of the environment. Many marketers are now embracing sustainability and green marketing programs that provide better environmental solutions as a result. In the technological arena, marketers should take account of the accelerating pace of technological change, opportunities for innovation, varying R&D budgets, and the increased governmental regulation brought about by technological change. In the political-legal environment, marketers must work within the many laws regulating
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