ION AND SCANNING THE ENVIRONMENT
C H A P T E R
After reading this chapter, students should:
Know the components of a modern marketing information system
Know what are useful internal records
Know what is involved with a marketing intelligence system
Know what are the key methods for tracking and identifying opportunities in
Know what are some important macroenvironment developments
To carry out their analysis, planning, implementation, and control responsibilities,
marketing managers need a marketing information system (MIS). The role of the MIS is
to assess the managers’ information needs, develop the needed information, and
distribute that information in a timely manner.
An MIS has three components: (a) an internal records system, which includes
information on the order-to-payment cycle and sales information systems; (b) a
marketing intelligence system, a set of procedures and sources used by managers to
obtain everyday information about pertinent developments in the marketing environment;
and (c) a marketing research system that allows for the systematic design, collection,
analysis, and reporting of data and findings relevant to a specific marketing situation.
Marketers find many opportunities by identifying trends (directions or sequences of
events that have some momentum and durability) and megatrends (major social,
economic, political, and technological changes that have long-lasting influence). Within
the rapidly changing global picture, marketers must monitor six major environmental
forces: demographic, economic, social-cultural, natural, technological, and political-legal.
In the demographic environment, marketers must be aware of worldwide population
growth; changing mixes of age, ethnic composition, and educational levels; the rise of
nontraditional families; and large geographic shifts in population.
In the economic arena, marketers need to focus on income distribution and levels of
savings, debt, and credit availability.
In the social-cultural arena, marketers must understand people’s views of themselves,
others, organizations, society, nature, and the universe. They must market products that