ANALYZING CONSUMER MARKETS
C H A P T E R
After reading this chapter, students should:
Know how consumer characteristics influence buying behavior
Know what major psychological processes influence consumer responses to
the marketing program
Know how consumers make purchasing decisions
Know how marketers analyze consumer decision making
Consumer behavior is influenced by three factors: cultural (culture, subculture, and social
class); social (reference groups, family, and social roles and statuses); and personal (age,
stage in the life cycle, occupation, economic circumstances, lifestyle, personality, and
Research into all these factors can provide marketers with clues to reach
and serve consumers more effectively.
Four main psychological processes affect consumer behavior: motivation, perception,
learning, and memory.
To understand how consumers actually make buying decisions, marketers must identify
who makes and has input into the buying decision; people can be initiators, influencers,
deciders, buyers, or users. Different marketing campaigns might be targeted to each type
The typical buying process consists of the following sequence of events: problem
recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase decision, and
postpurchase behavior. The marketers’ job is to understand the behavior at each stage.
The attitudes of others, unanticipated situational factors, and perceived risk may all affect
the decision to buy, as will consumers’ levels of postpurchase product satisfaction, use,
and disposal and actions on the part of the company.
Consumers are constructive decision-makers and subject to many contextual influences.
Consumers often exhibit low involvement in their decisions, using many heuristics as a
DETAILED CHAPTER OUTLINE
The aim of marketing is to meet and satisfy target customers’ needs and wants better than
competitors. Marketers are always looking for emerging customer trends that suggest new
marketing opportunities. Successful marketing requires that companies fully connect with
Adopting a holistic marketing orientation means understanding customers