kotler_mm13e_im_16 - NC HWHOLESALING AND LOGISTICS G A P T...

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ING, WHOLESALING, AND LOGISTICS 16 C H A P T E R LEARNING OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, students should: Know what the major types of marketing intermediaries that occupy this sector Know what marketing decisions these marketing intermediaries make Know what are the major trends with marketing intermediaries CHAPTER SUMMARY Retailing includes all the activities involved in selling goods or services directly to final consumers for personal, nonbusiness use. Retailers can be understood in terms of store retailing, nonstore retailing, and retail organizations. Like products, retail-store types pass through stages of growth and decline. As existing stores offer more services to remain competitive, costs and prices go up, which opens the door to new retail forms that offer a mix of merchandise and services at lower prices. The major types of retail stores are specialty stores; department stores; supermarkets; convenience stores; discount stores; off-price retailers (factory outlets, independent off- price retailers, and warehouse clubs); superstores (combination stores and supermarkets), and catalog showrooms. Although most goods and services are sold through stores, nonstore retailing has been growing. The major types of nonstore retailing are direct selling (one-to-one selling, one- to-many-party selling, and multilevel network marketing); direct marketing (which includes e-commerce and Internet retailing); automatic vending; and buying services. Although many retail stores are independently owned, an increasing number are falling under some form of corporate retailing. Retail organizations achieve many economies of scale, such as greater purchasing power, wider brand recognition, and better-trained employees. The major types of corporate retailing are corporate chain stores, voluntary chains, retailer cooperatives, consumer cooperatives, franchise organizations, and merchandising conglomerates. Like all marketers, retailers must prepare marketing plans that include decisions on target markets, product assortment and procurement, services and store atmosphere, price, promotion, and place. These decisions must take into account major trends, such as the growth of private labels, new retail forms and combinations, growth of intertype retail competition, competition between store-based and non-store-based retailing, growth of giant retailers, decline of middle-market retailers, growing investment in technology, and global presence of major retailers. Wholesaling includes all the activities involved in selling goods or services to those who buy for resale or business use. Wholesalers can perform functions better and more cost- effectively than the manufacturer can. These functions include selling and promoting, buying and assortment building, bulk breaking, warehousing, transportation, financing, 356
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Chapter-by-Chapter Instructional Material risk bearing, dissemination of market information, and provision of management services and consulting. There are four types of wholesalers: merchant wholesalers; brokers and agents;
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kotler_mm13e_im_16 - NC HWHOLESALING AND LOGISTICS G A P T...

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