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Chapter 18 - Chapter 18 The Machine Age 1877-1920...

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Chapter 18: The Machine Age 1877-1920 Technology & the Triumph of Industrialism Thomas Edison believed that people had to organize & work purposefully to bring about new products Americans though of themselves as mechanical people willing to replace old technology w/new Birth of the Electrical Industry Edison came up with to provide electricity conveniently to large number of customers George Westinghouse made better by using generators that used alternating current & transformers that reduced high voltage power to lower voltages Granville T Woods (black Edison) patented 35 devices vital to electronics & communications Henry Ford & the Automobile Industry Henry Ford used Daimlers Gasoline burning engine to power a vehicle Spawned massive industry Set up assembly lines that cut time & cost of producing autos & each worker only assigned one task Internal combustion engine helped give birth to manufacture trucks, buses, & airplanes The DuPont’s & the Chemical Industry Du Ponts manufactured gunpowder, fertilizers, dyes, & other chemical products Then produced photographic film, rubber, lacquer, textile fibers, & plastics Researched dyestuffs which aided pharmaceutical industry Pioneered methods of management, accounting, & reinvestment of earnings Technology & Southern Industry Tobacco & cotton from south propelled into machine age James Bonsack inventing machine for rolling cigarettes which then made production increase in the south Textile mills then ad villages made around them so that owners could watch over the workers at all times as to not form unions Developed southern iron & steel manufacturing “New South” Consequences of Technology Machines altered economy & everyday life Telephones & typewriters made communication face to face less important Electronic Sewing machines made clothing available to everyone Dietary habits changed New jobs formed with cash registers & calculators Large companies had advantage economies of scale Standardization Production reduced need for worker skills & judgment, boosting profits at expense of worker independence Frederick W Taylor & Efficiency Frederick W. Taylor foreman & engineer concluded best way a company could reduce fixed costs & increase profits was to apply scientific studies of how fast work be done Time & quality became measure of acceptable work, & science rather than experience determed ways of doing things Mechanization & the Changing Status of Labor Technology innovation & assembly line production created new jobs but most machines were labor saving few workers could produce more in less time Employees received wages for time spent on job Mass Production Mass production subdivided manufacturing into small tasks Assembly lines & scientific management deprived employees of their independence Employers concerned w/efficiency & productivity wanted certain standards of behavior upheld Efforts to increase productivity & max. use of machines were intended to make workers docile
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