Chapter 19

Chapter 19 - Chapter 19: The Vitality & Turmoil of...

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Growth of the Modern City Capital accumulated by urban mercantile enterprises fed industrial investment Increased opportunities in turn drew more people to cities; as workers & as consumers, they fueled yet more industrialization Industrial Development Cities housed a variety of industrial enterprises, but product specialization gradually became common Urban & industrial growth transformed the national economy & freed the US from dependence on European Mechanization of Mass Transportation Electric trolleys spread to nearly every large American city Urban Sprawl Growing middle class could escape to quite tree lined neighborhoods on outskirts & live in bungalows w/their own yards Thousands of small investors who bought land in anticipation of settlement paid little attention to need for When consumers moved outward, business followed Population Growth Living in cities increased from 10 mill To 54 mill Urban In-Migration In-migration from countryside & immigration from abroad made by far greatest contribution to urban population growth Rural populations declined as urban populations burgeoned Low crop prices & high debts dashed white farmers’ hopes & drove them toward opportunities that cities seemed to offer Foreign Immigration Settled in cities, where helped shape American culture Immigration movement pushed people away from traditional means of support & pulling them toward better opportunities Population pressures, land redistribution, & industrialization induced millions of peasants, small farmers, & craftsmen to leave; religious persecution Technological advances in communications & transportation spread news of opportunities & made travel The New Immigration Eastern & southern Europe, Canada, Mexico, Japan, Germany, England, Ireland, Scandinavia, Italy, New immigrants didn’t speak English, & more than half worked in low skilled occupations; family focus Rarely stayed put: migration, occupation change Rates of upward occupational mobility were slow but steady Failure rates were high among saloon owners & other small proprietors in working-class neighborhoods b/c low incomes of their customers made business uncertain
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Chapter 19 - Chapter 19: The Vitality & Turmoil of...

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