Chapter 21

Chapter 21 - Chapter 21: The Progressive Era 1895-1920 The...

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Chapter 21: The Progressive Era 1895-1920 The Varied Progressive Impulse Included: professional associations, women’s organizations, issue oriented groups, civic clubs, minority group associations Americans directly copied ideas such as settlement house, which came from England Progressive goals- ending abuse of power, reforming social institutions & promoting bureaucratic & scientific efficiency New middle class men & women in professions of law, medicine, engineering, settlement house & social Lincoln Steffen’s The shame of Cities hoped his exposes of bosses misrule would inspire mass outrage & ultimately reform Upton Sinclair’s the Jungle novel disclosed outrages of meatpacking industries Progressives urged adoption of initiative, permitted voters to propose new laws; referendum which enabled voters to accept or reject law; & recall which allowed voters to remove offending officials & judges from office Goal: efficiency Upper-Class Reformers Working-Class Reformers “bread-&-butter reforms”: safe factories, shorter workdays, workers compensation, better hosing, & health safeguards Alfred E Smith, Robert F Wagner, David I Walsh, Edward F Dunne wanted gov’t to take responsibility for alleviating hardships that resulted from urban industrial growth Opposed reforms such as prohibition, Sunday closing laws, civil service, & nonpartisan elections, which conflicted w/their constituents’ interests Socialists Immigrant intellectuals, industrial workers, disaffected Populists, miners, & women’s rights activists turned to socialism Socialists united behind Eugene V Debs, American railway Union organizer who drew nearly 100,000 votes as Socialist Party’s presidential candidate in 1900 presidential election Southern Progressivism Included same strategies for railroad & utility regulation, factory safety, pure food & drug legislation & moral reform that existed Racial bitterness tainted southern Progressive politics, excluding African Americans from most benefits of reform White women crusaded against child labor, founded society service organizations & challenged unfair wage rates Opponents of Progressivism Opposed regulatory measures out of fear that gov’t programs undermined individual initiative& competition that believed were basic to a free market system
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This note was uploaded on 11/28/2010 for the course HIS 2341 taught by Professor Asdih during the Spring '06 term at Bryant.

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Chapter 21 - Chapter 21: The Progressive Era 1895-1920 The...

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