Chapter 28 - Chapter 28 The Cold War American Globalism 1945-1961 From Allies to Adversaries o Political turmoil that many nations experienced after war

Chapter 28 - Chapter 28 The Cold War American Globalism...

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Chapter 28: The Cold War & American Globalism 1945-1961 From Allies to Adversaries o Political turmoil that many nations experienced after war spurred Soviet-American competition Decolonization o Financial constraints & nationalist rebellions forced imperial states to set their colonies free o Washington & Moscow paid close attention to this ant colonial ferment, seeing these new or emerging Third World states as potential allies that might provide military bases, resources, & markets Stalin’s Aims o Soviets were most concerned about preventing, another invasion of their homeland o Aims resembled those of czars before him: he wanted to push USSR’s borders to include Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, & Lithuania, as well as eastern part of prewar Poland o Sought pro-Soviet govts in eastern Europe o Stalin wanted to have a presence in northern Iran, & he pressed Turks to grant him naval bases & free access out of Black Sea o Soviet govt promoted economic independence more than trade w/other countries; did not promote rapid rebuilding of war-ravaged economies of region, or expanded world trade US Economic & Strategic Needs o Some other power could take advantage of political economic instability in war torn Europe & Asia & eventually seize control of these areas, with dire implications for Americas physical & economic security o Officials in Washington sought forward bases overseas, in order to keep an airborne enemy at bay o Sought quick reconstruction of nations, including former enemies Germany & Japan, & a world economy based on free trade o Soviets refused to join new World Bank & International Monetary Fund created Bretton Woods Conference to stabilize trade & finance o US dominated both institutions & used them to promote private investment & open international commerce o World Bank opened its doors & began to make loans to help members finance reconstruction projects; IMF, heavily backed by US, helped members meet their balance of payments problems through currency loans Stalin & Truman o Stalin had no wish for an immediate war o Stalin believed that Germany & Japan would rise again to threaten USSR o Truman glossed over nuances, ambiguities, & counterevidence; he preferred simple answer stated in either/or terms o Truman constantly exaggerated o Truman had self-consciously developed what he called his “rough method” & bragged after encounter that “I gave it to him straight 1 2 to the jaw” The Beginning of the Cold War o Began in 1917 w/Bolshevik Revolution & Western powers hostile response, but which in amore meaningful sense began in mid 1945 as WWII drew to a close o One of 1 st soviet American clashes came in Poland when soviets refused to allow polish govt in exile in London to be a part of communist govt Moscow sponsored o Moscow officials pointed that US was reviving their traditional enemy, Germany o Soviets also protested that US was meddling in eastern Europe o Moscow charged that US was pursing a double standard- intervening in affairs of eastern Europe but

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