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Unformatted text preview: Wendy Moritz Chapter 7: Groups & Organizations Social Groups : clusters of people w/whom interact in our daily lives From world of families, local neighborhoods, & small businesses, society now turns to operation of huge cooperations & other bureaucracies: Formal organizations Social Groups Social Group : 2 or more people who identify & interact w/ one another o Couples, families, circles of friends, churches, clubs, businesses, neighbors, & large org. o Group is made up of people w/shared experiences, loyalties, & interests Category : not a group but people all over country with a status in common o Ex: women, homeowners, solders, millionaires, college graduates, & roman Catholics Loosely formed collection of people in one place: crowd Primary & Secondary Groups 2 types of social groups o Charles Horton Cooley said primary group : small social group whose members share personal & lasting relationships joined by primary relationships ( people spend great deal of time together, engage in a wide range of activities, & feel that they know one another pretty well) Cooley called personal & tightly integrated groups primary b/c are among 1 st groups we experience in life Family most important in every society Family & early play groups have primary importance in socialization process, shaping attitudes, behavior, & social identity Help one another in many ways View each other as unique & irreplaceable Define who are in terms of family ties or personal qualities o Secondary Group : large & impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity Have characteristics opposite to primary groups Secondary Relationships involve weak emotional ties & little perusal knowledge of one another Most short-term, beginning & ending w/o particular significance Involve many people Goal orientation Tend to keep score, aware of what give others and what receive in return Remain formal & polite Group Leadership Important element of group dynamics is leadership Small circle of friends may have no leader, most large secondary groups place leaders in a formal chain of command Two Leadership Roles Instrumental Leadership : group leadership that focuses on completion of tasks o Make plans, give orders, & get things done o Have formal secondary relationships w/other members o Give orders & reward of punish members according to how much members contribute to groups efforts o Enjoy more respect from members Expressive Leadership: group leadership that focuses on groups well being o Take less interest in achieving goals than in raising group morale & minimizing tension & conflict among members o Build personal primary ties o Offer sympathy to a member going through tough times, keep group united, & lighten serious moments w/humor o Receive more personal affection Traditional US family, has 2 types of leadership linked to gender: Males-primary, Females-...
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- Spring '06