{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

chapter 4 outline

chapter 4 outline - Wendy Moritz Sociology Chapter 4...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Wendy Moritz Sociology Chapter 4: Society Society : people who interact in a defined territory & share a culture Gerhard Lenski describes how societies have changed over past 10,000 yrs o Points to importance of technology in shaping any society Karl Marx took a long historical view of societies o Story of society all about social conflict that arises from how people work within an economic system to produce material goods Max Weber shows that power of ideas shape society o Contrasted traditional thinking of simple societies w/rational thought that dominates complex societies today Emile Durkheim helped see different ways that traditional & modern societies hang together Gerhard Lenski: Society & Technology: Lenski uses term Sociocultural evolution: changes that occur as a society gains new technology 5 types of societies defined by technology: 1. Hunting & gathering societies 2. Horticultural & pastoral societies 3. Agrarian societies 4. Industrial Societies 5. Postindustrial Societies Hunting & Gathering Societies Hunting & Gathering: use of simple tools to hunt animals & gather vegetation All humans were hunters and gathers until about 12,000 years ago Only a few hunting & gathering societies still remain: Aka & Pygmies of Central Africa, Bushmen of southwestern Africa, Aborginies of Australia, Kaska Indians of Northwestern Canada, Batek & Semai of Malysia Little ability to control their environment, hunters & gathers spend most of time looking for game & collecting plants to eat Only a few dozen members Must be nomadic to move on to find new sources of vegetation or to follow migrating animals Depend on family to do many things Have a Shaman (spiritual leader) who enjoys high prestige but has to work to find food like everyone else People come close to being socially equal Use simple weapons like spears, bow & arrows, & stone knives but not to wage war Real enemy are forces of nature: storms & droughts can kill off their food supply Societies with more powerful technology have closed in on few remaining hunters & gatherers reducing their food supply Horticultural & Pastoral Societies Horticulture: use of hand tools to raise crops Using a hoe to work soil & digging stick to punch holes in ground Allowed people to give up gathering to grow own food Started in middle east then to Latin America then Asia then all over Pastoralism : domestication of animals Societies that mix horticulture & pastoralism can be found in S. America, Africa, & Asia Horticulture greatly increased food production so populations expanded to hundreds of people which only moved when soil gave out Pastoralists remained nomadic leading herds to fresh grazing lands
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Material Surplus : more resources than are needed to support the population Once enough material surplus then not everyone has to work for food Some can make crafts, others engage in trade, cut hair, apply tattoos, serve as priests More socially diverse
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

Page1 / 9

chapter 4 outline - Wendy Moritz Sociology Chapter 4...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon bookmark
Ask a homework question - tutors are online