chapter 4 outline

chapter 4 outline - Wendy Moritz Sociology Chapter 4:...

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Wendy Moritz Sociology Chapter 4: Society Society Gerhard Lenski describes how societies have changed over past 10,000 yrs o Points to importance of technology in shaping any society Karl Marx took a long historical view of societies o Story of society all about social conflict that arises from how people work within an economic system to produce material goods Max Weber shows that power of ideas shape society o Contrasted traditional thinking of simple societies w/rational thought that dominates complex societies today Lenski uses term Sociocultural evolution: changes that occur as a society gains new technology 5 types of societies defined by technology: 1. 2. 3. Agrarian societies 4. Industrial Societies 5. Postindustrial Societies All humans were hunters and gathers until about 12,000 years ago Only a few hunting & gathering societies still remain: Aka & Pygmies of Central Africa, Bushmen of southwestern Africa, Aborginies of Australia, Kaska Indians of Northwestern Little ability to control their environment, hunters & gathers spend most of time looking for Only a few dozen members Must be nomadic to move on to find new sources of vegetation or to follow migrating animals Depend on family to do many things Have a Shaman (spiritual leader) who enjoys high prestige but has to work to find food like everyone else People come close to being socially equal Societies with more powerful technology have closed in on few remaining hunters & gatherers reducing their food supply Horticulture: use of hand tools to raise crops Allowed people to give up gathering to grow own food Started in middle east then to Latin America then Asia then all over Pastoralism : domestication of animals Horticulture greatly increased food production so populations expanded to hundreds of people which only moved when soil gave out Pastoralists remained nomadic leading herds to fresh grazing lands
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Material Surplus : more resources than are needed to support the population Once enough material surplus then not everyone has to work for food Some can make crafts, others engage in trade, cut hair, apply tattoos, serve as priests
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This note was uploaded on 11/28/2010 for the course SOC 101 taught by Professor Asd during the Spring '06 term at Bryant.

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chapter 4 outline - Wendy Moritz Sociology Chapter 4:...

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