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chapter 5 outline

chapter 5 outline - Wendy Moritz Chapter 5 Socialization...

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Wendy Moritz Chapter 5: Socialization Social Experience: The Key to our Humanity Socialization : lifelong social experience by which people develop their human potential & learn culture Humans need social experience to learn their culture & to survive Social experience is foundation of personality : person’s fairly consistent patterns of acting, thinking, & feeling Build a personality by internalizing our surroundings Human Development: Nature & Nurture The Biological Sciences: The Role of Nature Darwin’s study of evolution led people to think that human behavior was instinctive, simply our “nature” Led to claims that US economic system reflects “instinctive human competitiveness”, some people are “born criminals” or women are “naturally” emotional while men are “naturally” rational Ethnocentric view helped justify colonialism: why not take advantage of others if they seem not to be human in same sense that you are? The Social Sciences: The Role of Nurture John B. Watson developed theory called behaviorism : holds that behavior is not instinctive but learned People everywhere are equally human, differing only in their cultural patterns Watson rooted human behavior not in nature but in nurture Whether develop your inherited potential depends on how you are raised Correctly say that nurture matters more in shaping human behavior Nurture is our nature Social Isolation Studies of Nonhuman Primates Classic study, Harry & Margaret Harlow placed rhesus monkeys in various conditions of social isolation Found that complete isolation for even six months seriously disrupted monkey’s development When returned to group monkeys were passive, anxious, & fearful Then placed infant rhesus monkeys in cage w/artificial mother made of wire mesh with a wooden head & nipple of a feeding tube where breast would be Survived but unable to interact with others when placed in group Monkeys with artificial wire mesh mother covered with soft terry cloth did better Harlow’s concluded that monkeys benefited from closeness Confirmed how important it is that adults cradle infants affectionately Studies of Isolated Children Human beings can recover from abuse & short-term isolation Point at which isolation in childhood causes permanent development damage Understanding Socialization Sigmund Freud’s Elements of Personality Turned to study of personality & mental disorders & eventually developed the celebrated theory of psychoanalysis Basic Human Needs Claimed biology plays a major part in human development Theorized that humans have 2 basic needs or drives that are present at birth: o Need for sexual & emotional bonding called life instinct or eros (Greek god of love) o Share an aggressive drive called “death instinct” or thanatos (Greek meaning death)
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Operate at unconscious level, creating deep inner tension Freud’s Model of Personality
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