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Airfoil Geometry Camber line line joining the midpoints between upper and lower surfaces. Chord line straight line joining end points of camber line (length=c) Camber max. distance of camber line from chord line (expressed as %c; usually less than 5%c) Z u =(Z c +Z t ) Z l =(Z c Z t ) z thickness camber Lower surface C h o r d lin e TE TE thickness Z t Zc Z l Z u LE circle (radius) AE/ME350 Jha Loads-1 Upper surface

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Forces and Moments Angle of attack  V Arbitrary ref. pt. (generally c/4 or cg) S V R M f F N 2 ). , , (  For air foil, Lift co efficient Drag co efficient Pitching moment coefficient 1( ) S c unit span cos sin l lift F dd r a gF m pitching moment  l d F 1 2 l ll C qc Vc d d C qc 2 m m C qc AE/ME350 Jha Loads-2 m
Wing Planform Aerodynamic characteristics generally based on gross wing area (assumed extended up to fuselage centerline) Exposed wing (only outside fuselage) area used for skin friction drag LE C(y) Ct TE s=b/2 b ¼ chord line Cr y LE /4 c 0 2 /2 () 2 ( ) ( 1 ) 22 , ,/ rt r wing tr b wing bb Sc c c y d y c b Wing aspect ratio A S Wing taper ratio c c  AE/ME350 Jha Loads-3

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Mean Aerodynamic Chord (MAC), Wing twist along span + y/s=1.0 Wash in tip Wash out tip Root Mean Aerodynamic Chord /2 2 2 0 0 0 2 1 1 () 22 3 b b b r cy d y cc y d y c S cyd y       0 21 2 ( ) 61 (( 1 / 4 ) ) b mac b yc y y d y S Aerodynamic center at
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