Chap10Lec - DRAFT (Chap 10) Page 1 Chapter 10 a closer look...

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DRAFT (Chap 10) Page 1 Chapter 10 – a closer look at ideas we’ve already briefly discussed. Thermodynamics – tells us IF a reaction will occur spontaneously, but not how fast. (Enthalpy and Entropy are thermodynamic properties.) Kinetics – kinetics tell us how fast the reaction will go (the rate of a chemical reaction or the speed at which it occurs). Equilibrium – most chemical reactions (and many physical processes) move to a state in which there exists a certain amount of reactants and a certain amount of products. When a system has reached the point where those amounts don’t change, the system is said to have reached equilibrium . A “System” is that portion of the universe that we single out for study. N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) 2NH 3 (g) 2NH 3 (g) N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) The above equations both show the same system, a system involved in the equilibrium of nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas with ammonia gas.
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(Chap 10) Page 2 A system will move toward equilibrium according to the laws of thermodynamics (determines how the system will look at equilibrium) and kinetics (determines how fast it gets to equilibrium). There are many factors that determine how a system will look once it achieves equilibrium (what amounts of reactants and products will be present). Furthermore, if these factors change, a system will seek a new balance for equilibrium (and, therefore a new equilibrium state in which the amounts do change) Some factors that affect equilibrium a. Temperature b. Pressure b. Amount of reactants present c. Amount of products present Some systems take a very long time to reach equilibrium; some systems move to an equilibrium value very quickly. Kinetics! Some systems favor one side of a reaction far more than the other side.
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This note was uploaded on 11/29/2010 for the course CHEM 101 taught by Professor Stegemiller during the Winter '07 term at Ohio State.

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Chap10Lec - DRAFT (Chap 10) Page 1 Chapter 10 a closer look...

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