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For Design5 - !" CO2 MANAGEMENT IN REFINERIES Graham...

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! CO 2 MANAGEMENT IN REFINERIES Graham Phillips Technology Manager Refining / E. Hemisphere Foster Wheeler Energy Limited Reading, UK Graham_Phillips@fwuk.fwc.com GASIFICATION V NOORDWIJK, HOLLAND April 2002
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! CO 2 management in refineries - 2 - Introduction Production of CO 2 globally has been brought into sharp focus in recent times through declarations such as the Kyoto accord, and also by industry leaders committing to tangible reductions. In essence, the Kyoto accord distilled a global problem into a national one, by setting emission targets for greenhouse gases compared with a baseline 1990 level, with a view to pegging and reducing global emissions. How individual nations, economic communities (such as the EU) and industry react to the growing pressures to reduce CO 2 is still to be formulated and ratified. A key element in the debate is whether specific industries should be targeted and whether CO 2 trading should be allowed across national boundaries and/or industries. The energy sector, including refining, is likely to feature in any legislation aimed at curbing CO 2 emissions. However, in this case the refiner may see real benefits and opportunities in adopting a CO 2 management and reduction strategy, in order to; Be seen as a “good neighbour” Benefit from some of the economic gains of CO 2 reductions (e.g. energy conservation, CO 2 utilisation). Apply technologies, such as gasification, which allow heavy residue destruction, relatively easy CO 2 capture and other environmental benefits. This paper discusses how CO 2 can be managed on the refinery and the potential that gasification has to significantly reduce CO 2 emissions. Sources of refinery CO 2 Emissions Figure 1: typical breakdown of CO 2 emissions in the oil industry on the basis of MWth of energy delivered . Approximately 90% of CO 2 emissions comes from combustion of the final product, with the refining activity itself contributing around 5%. 91.72% 1.03% 4.95% Oil products combustion 91.72% Refinery 4.95% Crude shipping 2.29% Product shipping 1.03%
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! CO 2 management in refineries - 3 - Legislation and fiscal pressures can be expected to target the end product user and this is already taking place. For example, in many countries diesel fuel receives a lower rate of taxation, compared to gasoline, because of diesels lower CO 2 generation per kilometre travelled. This “dash to diesel” is contributing to a significant shift in product demand. In Europe, for example, the diesel deficit is expected to grow from the current 10 million tonnes per annum to around 45 million tonnes per annum by 2010. Although, a relatively small contributor to CO 2 emissions in the oil sector overall, the refinery can be expected to come under pressure to reduce emissions. Legislators appear to group the refining activity with the power generation sector and other stationary sources.
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For Design5 - !" CO2 MANAGEMENT IN REFINERIES Graham...

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