Post Exam 1

Post Exam 1 - Post Exam 1 FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS: Large...

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Post Exam 1 FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS: Large secondary groups created to achieve specific goals efficiently - Life extends beyond people in them - Many people: interrelated statuses, roles - May have sub-organizations - Rules, regulations, standards of conduct - Organizations differ from small groups in many ways: Types of formal organizations: 0. Coercive 1. Utilitarian 2. Voluntary Bureaucracy: organizational design to accomplish routine tasks by large numbers of people in the most efficient manner Ideal Traits of a Bureaucracy: - Division of labor staffed on merit, specialized skills - Hierarchy of authority; belongs to position, not person - Rules and regulations standardize work - Impartial treatment & impersonal relationships - Formal written communication - Efficient (rational) Informal culture Max Weber’s RATIONALIZATION : thought and action grounded in logical assessment of cause and effect and efficient means to achieve an end - way of life organized to accommodate large numbers of people
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- designed to achieve desired end efficiently - modern world becoming more “rational” in all spheres of life Industrialization of Low Skill Service Jobs - more like factory jobs in 1900 than information jobs today o specialized division of labor o routine, repetitive work o rigid chain of command/supervision o extensive written rules and regulations dictate work o impersonal o efficient (rational) ***********George Ritzer: McDonaldization of Society********************** - Applying fast-food industry model to other sectors of societies o Efficiency o Quantifications o Predictability o Control Dysfunction s in bureaucratic organizations: - Uniform applications of rules, despite different circumstances - Bureaucratic alienation: o Segmented tasks tend to alienate people from their work and coworkers o Meaning of work may be invisible - Focus on the goal overlook side effects, unintended consequences Weber’s Iron cage of rationality: so much rules, irrational decisions from rational systems Other problems with bureaucracies: Trained incapacity Communication problems Bureaucratic ritualism (Red tape) Goal displacement/B (Board Games)
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Other problems with bureaucracies: Parkinson’s Law- jobs take as much time as you allow them to take Peter Principle- People get promoted to the level of their imcompetency Oligarchy- concentration of decision making in the hands of a few Corporate Organizational Bureaucracies - Corporation: legal entities with rights and liabilities that are separate from those of its owners and workers - Incorporation protects wealth of owners from lawsuits - Facilitates corporate welfare – tax breaks, relocation incentives - 51 of the biggest economic entities in the world are corporations, not nations Conglomerates: group of diverse corporations under common ownership and run as a single organization Horizontal integration - is when the merger, entities at the same level( delta trying to buy US airways) Vertical integration
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Post Exam 1 - Post Exam 1 FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS: Large...

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