BME 314 Lecture 2 2010 - BME314:BiomaterialsI Krish Roy,...

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BME 314: Biomaterials I Krish Roy, Ph.D. Associate Professor Dept. of Biomedical Engineering
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Learning Objectives At the end of this lecture students should be able to Define biomaterials and discuss their usage List the various classes of biomaterials and outline their basic properties Explain the mechanical properties of biomaterials and discuss why they are important Understand why surface properties of materials are important and how they can be modified Define biocompatibility and biodegradability and discuss the host response to implanted materials
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What is a biomaterial? A biomaterial is a nonviable material used in a medical device, intended to interact with biological systems. (Williams, 1987) The need for biomaterials stems from inability to treat many diseases, injuries and conditions with other therapies or procedures replacement of body part that has lost function (total hip, heart) correct abnormalities (spinal rod) improve function (Pacemaker, Stent) assist in healing (structural, pharmaceutical effects: sutures, drug release) "What are the effects of the material on body and vice versa?"
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Societal Perspective Motivation Improve quality of life. .. $$$ Biomaterials is a $100 billion + market, increasing at 5-7% / yr E.g. Diabetes , which afflicts over 15 million Americans (5.9% of populations). An artificial pancreas, if it existed, and were given to 10% of diabetics would generate over 2.3 billion/yr Biomaterials constitute 7-10% of entire medical market Device Patient cost Material Cost Annual Rev. US Hemodialyzer $18 $6 $110M Pacemaker $6000 $75 $6.75M Hip $3000 $100 $0.5M $3000 $30 $1.75M
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Early “biomaterials” Gold: Malleable, inert metal (does not oxidize); used in dentistry by Chinese, Aztecs and Romans--dates 2000 years Iron, brass: High strength metals; rejoin fractured femur (1775) Glass: Hard ceramic; used to replace eye (purely cosmetic) Wood: Natural composite; high strength to weight; used for limb prostheses and artificial teeth Bone: Natural composite; uses: needles, decorative piercings Sausage casing: cellulose membrane used for early dialysis Important dates 1860's: Lister develops aseptic surgical technique early 1900's: Bone plates used to fix fractures 1930's: Introduction of stainless steel, cobalt chromium alloys 1940's: Polymers in medicine: PMMA bone repair; cellulose for dialysis; silicone developed, not yet used in medicine 1952: Mechanical heart valve 1953: Dacron (polymer fiber) vascular grafts 1960's: Cemented (PMMA) joint replacement 1970's: PEO (polyethyleneoxide) protein resistant thin film coating 1976: Artificial heart (W. Kolff) A Historical Perspective
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Selecting materials Materials selection and “biocompatibility”
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This note was uploaded on 11/29/2010 for the course BME 314 taught by Professor Frey during the Fall '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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BME 314 Lecture 2 2010 - BME314:BiomaterialsI Krish Roy,...

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