reading # 4

reading # 4 - 080-125_WP_CH03.indd 080-125_WP_CH03.indd 80...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–5. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
080-125_WP_CH03.indd 80 080-125_WP_CH03.indd 80 4/1/09 8:28:34 AM 4/1/09 8:28:34 AM
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
080-125_WP_CH03.indd 81 080-125_WP_CH03.indd 81 4/1/09 8:28:35 AM 4/1/09 8:28:35 AM
Background image of page 2
CHAPTER 3 Why Are There Wars? The deadliest international confl ict since World War II is the war in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), which has been called “Africa’s World War.” The war ofF cially lasted from 1998 to 2003, but F ghting continues to this day. Troops from eight different Africa nations—the DRC, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Chad, Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi—African involved, as well as numerous rebel groups. The war and its aftermath have claimed over 5 million lives. 080-125_WP_CH03.indd 82 080-125_WP_CH03.indd 82 4/1/09 8:28:35 AM 4/1/09 8:28:35 AM
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
What Is the Purpose of War? P What Do States Fight Over? P Bargaining and War P Compellence and Deterrence: Varieties of Coercive Bargaining Do Wars Happen by Mistake? War from Incomplete Information P Incentives to Misrepresent and the Problem of Credibility P Communicating Resolve: The Language of Coercion Can an Adversary Be Trusted to Honor a Deal? War from Commitment Problems P Bargaining over Goods That Are a Source of Future Bargaining Power P Prevention: War in Response to Changing Power P Preemption: War in Response to First-Strike Advantages Is Compromise Always Possible? War from Indivisiblity How Can We Make War Less Likely? P Raising the Costs of War P Increasing Transparency P Providing Outside Enforcement of Commitments P Dividing Apparently Indivisible Goods Conclusion: Why War? War is an extremely costly way for states to settle their disputes. Given the human and material costs of military conF ict, why do states sometimes wage war rather than resolving their disputes through negotiations? I n August 1914, the major countries of Europe embarked on a war the likes of which the world had never before seen. Convinced that the war would be over by Christmas, European leaders sent a generation of young men into a F ght that would last four years and claim more than 15 million lives. The F ghting was so intense that in one battle the British Army lost 20,000 soldiers in a single day, as wave after wave of attacking infantrymen were cut down by German machine guns. At the time, it was called the Great War. Those who could never imagine another such horriF c event dubbed it the “war to end all wars.” Today, we know this event as the ±irst World War, or World War I, because twenty years later the countries of Europe were at it once again. World War II (1939–1945) claimed 30 to 50 million lives. There is no puzzle in the study of international politics more press- ing and important than the question of why states go to war. It is the most tragic and costly phenomenon that we observe in social and political life. The costs of war can be counted on a number of dimen- sions. The most obvious cost is the loss of human life. By one esti- mate, wars among states in the twentieth century led to 40 million deaths directly from combat plus tens of millions more deaths due to war-related hardships.
Background image of page 4
Image of page 5
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

Page1 / 46

reading # 4 - 080-125_WP_CH03.indd 080-125_WP_CH03.indd 80...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 5. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online