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reading # 11 - FAILED STATES CIVIL WARS AND NATION-BUILDING...

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FAILED STATES, CIVIL WARS, AND NATION-BUILDING Failed States, Collapsed States, Weak States: Causes and Indicators ROBERT I. ROTBERG Libpria, This d. fai I I'd statcs arc Sierra L('oJl(\ alld the Sudall , ' , SOlllalia iis a collapS('d stall', , fail('d a1l(1 ('()llaps('dl statt's, Imt others were 011(',' ('ollaps('(1 or faikd and JIl<l1l\ otllN 1l1Odcl'll lIation-statl"s 1I0\\' approa('h the hrink ofhlilnl'P, SOII](' lllUdl mol'(' (lillinolls,," thall (JtiH,I'S, ,-\lIolh{ 'r grollp of state's drifts disasl rollsl) <lm\ 11- \\ani from \\eak to Edlill,g to bikd, \\'llatt is of p<uticular int(']'('st is why ami ll()\\ states slip frolll \\('akll('ss tOllar! I billll'l', ( )r 110t, Tilt, li,t of weak slates is IOllg, hilt oillya 1(,\\ of tllos(' \\'eak and poor!., )2:0\ ('l'Il1l,d stat('s lI('cd lIl'('('~sarily edge into rlil- ure, \\'I,)(l EV(,ll tIl(' categorization of' a s!tate as failillg'-( :ololllbia and [II( among otlll'rs-lH'cd not dooJll it irrdric'vahlv to lilll hlil nre , \VIl<lt dol'S it lake to stak owr tIl(' (,(\gc into !'ailllln' or SOlllalia, a llatioll-statl' 101' a\Jollt 9 Illillioll cohcsi\(' l'llltllral traditioll, a l'Ollllll()1I lall,gl!l<l,!.,!;l', a t'OllllllOll tOl\Oflwtiolialisl11, , ,tliL <lIHltll('ll ('(lllaps;I':) l'erllCllls, , ,it Ill'\'("rl'OllstitutcII asinl2:ll' of two SlIz('!'aills, with Tltl'li, as was oftell tl\(' Fmlll I{ohnt I. I\otlll'rg, "Failed States, Coliaps"d :Stal"s, \Veak SIal<'>: I :""S('S alld COIIS(''I''''!l('('S,'' Sla(e Failllrr (11"/ Sioic W:",!iCI/('ss ill (/ Tilllf' 0/1"1'1'01; Call1i>ridw', Mi\ alld l't,,,Cl' Vo,,"dali()" alld tl,,· ll1't>okill\!s Imlllllliolll'n'ss.:200:1, I'P, 1-:2fl. 451
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152 PART 4 CONTEMPORARY WORLD POLITICS Siad Barn', ('om Illalltier lhe aml\, d("('iti('d tlml tl\(' P()\w]' ill wmr SIlSpt'lidilig tilt' ('ollstitllliolL p,uiies. and prolltisillg all ('11(1 to corrllptioll, 'l\wlll\ \('ars and l1Iilll\ lat(' L S iad Barn' Ilad S\ll '('('('ded in tI('sl 1'O\'i Ilg ,tIlY S(,1I1 hlnl\( '(' or national , Backed first 1)\ the Smid Union alld lhcli b\ t11(' United Statl's, Siad Barn· inslituliolls or gm('nllll('nl alld d('nlocntl'v, ahlls(·d his l'iti/,('ns' dUll 1I1( 'led as Illan\' o!tlw n 'SOil rcc's of the stall' as possihl(· illto his ()\\ll alld and d('pri\('d ('\",nOIl(' ('1st' at tilt' ('lld or llit' (:old \ \'ar or \\hat \\ as It'h of t1)(' spoils of SOlidi snpn'lll(' nde. All of till' Illajor dans ami than Siall Barrc's ()\\II, 1)('('<1111(' ali(,I1<1(('(\. His shock troops p(Tpl'lrall'(1 (JIll' ann allotlll'r againsl 1<,110\\ SOIIHtiis, lh tl](, Ollset orchil war ill lDDL litt' SOillali stall' had lOll!!: sin('(' Etilt'd. The ci"i\ \\ar tI( 'strowd \d lal was kit and SOli !alia onlo itself. ' , , Pn'si(hJlll Stevl'I]S (19()H~19S5) svsl('lIlalieall, redu('cd 11I1I]1~1lI s(>cllrilv withil] Sicrt'a Lt'OIl(' so as to 1I1<LXillli/.l' his OWIl p('rsonal powc·r. alnl , . , lhat il](Tt'aS(~ ill personal pow('r p(,r1nitt(,d a lPI,tnlllll] leap in his cOlltrol 0\('1' till' (,O]llltn's rents alld rid]l's, Sl(,\(,llS "sold ('h:\11('l's to prorit from disorder to those' \\110 cOlilel pay 1(lr il s(,lyiccs, ":2 lie ncalcd a pri\illt' lIlililan I()f('l' to terrorize his own til(' dialllond fields. As til(' oHi('ial mil' or law ov('r 11\ SlCW'IIS, look its pla('e, InstitlitiollS w('rc broken or , Tilt' stall' Iwc;tlll(' i1\c[!itilllatc\ amI a civil alld assisl('(l rnllil olltside. lUrll('d I;liltm' inlo a ('ollaps('.
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