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Unformatted text preview: Leaders and International Conict Giacomo Chiozza & H. E. Goemans Chapter 1 Introduction Joaquim Alberto Chissano, the second President of Mozambique, stepped down from power on February 2nd, 2005 after serving his country for 19 years. During his rule, Mozambique experienced economic progress, democratic development and paci_cation. The civil war that had ravaged the country for 16 years came to an end in 1992 when a U.N.-sponsored peace accord was signed in Rome between President Chissano and the Renamo leader Afonso Dhlakama. Elections were held two years later and again in 1999, which Chissano and the Frelimo party won. In 2004, President Chissano announced that he would not run for a third term, even though Mozambique's constitution would allow him to do so. Rather, he voluntarily retired and let a successor to be selected. For all his services to his country, President Chissano was awarded the _rst Mo Ibrahim Prize for Achievement in African Leadership, a great honor meant to celebrate his outstanding contributions to peace, prosperity and democracy, but also . . . a lot of money: 5 million U.S. Dollars over 10 years and 200,000 U.S. Dollars annually for life thereafter in addition to up to 200,000 U.S. Dollars a year for 10 years towards the winner's public interest activities and good causes. The Prize is the brainchild of Dr. Mo Ibrahim, a Sudanese businessman and telecommunication mogul, who, after selling his main business, set up a charity foundation devoted to fostering democratic governance and economic development in Africa. But rather than funding health care projects or civil works, Dr. Ibrahim's foundation adopted a revolutionary approach to charity: to promote development by changing the incentives that drive political leaders in o_ce. Aid and development projects, two of the traditional approaches of charity organizations, are discounted because they do not directly address the political sources of 1 Introduction the persistent stagnation and underdevelopment of African societies and economies. Aid and development projects do not alter how leaders govern their countries. Development and prosperity, in Dr. Ibrahim's view, ow from good governance; and good governance depends on how leaders strike a balance between private gains and public bene_ts to pursue their political careers. The assumption that underlies the Mo Ibrahim Prize is that the fate of leaders once they are out of o_ce is a key determinant of how they run their countries. The assumption runs as follows: When leaders face impoverishment and retribution once they are out of o_ce, they would be doggedly determined to enrich themselves, squash any opposition, trample over any legal restraint in order to cling onto power. Power is their lifeline. When leaders can expect a safe retirement, however, they would take a di_erent perspective on how to govern. In a recent interview with the Financial Times, Dr. Ibrahim explained that African leaders [. . . ] look to retirement as they would to the edge of a cli_,African leaders [....
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This note was uploaded on 11/29/2010 for the course IR 109 taught by Professor Heinz during the Spring '10 term at Rochester.
- Spring '10