chap17 - Chapter 17 - The Age of Absolutism. (1550-1800)....

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Chapter 17 - The Age of Absolutism. (1550-1800). (1) Extending Spanish Power. (2) France Under Louis XIV. (3) Triumph of Parliament in England. (4) Rise of Austria and Prussia. (5) Absolute Monarchy in Russia. (1) Extending Spanish Power. Setting the Scene. 1500s-1700s. Monarchs get powerful. Build royal army to replace nobles’ army. Take new lands and expand government. Lay foundation for nations of Europe today. Serious-minded King Philip II of Spain was member of Hapsburg dynasty. The Hapsburg Empire First Hapsburgs were dukes of Austria. Got in carefully arranged marriages. Charles V (1500-58). King of Spain (age 16). Holy Roman Emperor (age 19). Founder of Hapsburg dynasty. Charles was son of Joanna, Infanta, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, and Philip the Handsome who chipped in Austria and the Netherlands. Charles is a devout Catholic. Tries to force German princes to respect pope. Charles accepts Peace of Augsburg (1555). Princes chose Catholic/Lutheran. Charles battles France for Italy, Burgundy, Flanders. Charles battles Ottoman Turks for Austria. 1556. Charles retires to monastery. Leaves Austria to brother Ferdinand (Holy Roman Emperor), and rest of empire to son Philip Philip II (1527-1598). King of Spain (age 29). Philip is an absolute monarch or ruler with total authority over government and lives of its people. Untrusting. Religious. He sees his mission in life to fight heretics and restore unity of Catholic Church. He attacks Turkish strongholds in Mediterranean (his crusade). He wins at Lepanto (1571). Revolt in the Netherlands. 1566. Philip orders laws against Protestants. Dutch revolt with many Dutch Catholics joining the Protestants because they resent Spanish rule. 1581. Seven northern provinces became Dutch Netherlands (Protestant). Declare independence from Spain. 1830. Ten southern provinces became Belgium.
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The Mighty Armada. English sea dogs (Sir Francis Drake) attack Spanish ports in the Americas. 1588. Spain sends armada (armed fleet) of 68 vessels with 60,000 troops. Attacks England. Loses in a disaster. Spain’s Golden Age. The century from 1550 to 1650 is called ‘siglo de oro’ or ‘golden century.’ Century of Gold. Spanish writers, philosophers, artists create masterpieces. Painters. El Greco. El Greco Domenico Theotocopoulos (1541-1614). Born in Crete. Known as ‘The Greek’ or El Greco. Did haunting religious pictures of saints. Did notably "Assumption of the Virgin." (Chicago). Velasquez. Diego Velasquez (1599-1660). Considered the ‘greatest Spanish painter of them all.’ Gained fame as court painter at Madrid. Best work: "Maids of Honor" (1656). Infanta and dwarf. Writers. Cervantes. Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616). Maimed his left hand at Battle of Lepanto.
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chap17 - Chapter 17 - The Age of Absolutism. (1550-1800)....

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